Abstract

Based on the diffraction theory the paper analyzes non-modulation Pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS, namely, four-sided pyramid) and two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor (TSPWFS), and expresses the detected signals as a function of the measured wavefront. The expressions of the detected signals show that non-modulation PWFS and TSPWFS hold the same properties of both slope and direct phase sensors. We compare both sensors working in slope and phase sensing by theory and numerical simulations. The results demonstrate that the performance of TSPWFS excels that of PWFS. Additionally, the influence of interference between adjacent pupils is discussed.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
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  6. R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Y. Chew, R. M. Clare, and R. G. Lane, “A comparison of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensors,” Opt. Commun. 268(2), 189–195 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. E. Pinna, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, and P. Stefanini, “Signal spatial filtering for co-phasing in seeing-limited conditions,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3465–3467 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
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  21. C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233(1-3), 27–38 (2004).
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  22. S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4034, 184–189 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369(2), L9–L12 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (2)

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Daly and C. Dainty, “Ophthalmic wavefront measurements using a versatile pyramid sensor,” Appl. Opt. 49(31), G67–G77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, S. Oberti, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “Adaptive Optics Simulations for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701572, 701572-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

D. W. Philion and K. Baker, “Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627228, 627228-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chew, R. M. Clare, and R. G. Lane, “A comparison of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensors,” Opt. Commun. 268(2), 189–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Pyramid sensor for segmented mirror alignment,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2572–2574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging:pyramid sensor versus spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357(1), L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Costa, “Modulation effect of the atmosphere in a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Appl. Opt. 44(1), 60–66 (2005).
[PubMed]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233(1-3), 27–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill and P. Salinari, “The Large Binocular Telescope Project,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 140–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208(1-3), 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369(2), L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4034, 184–189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a “Foucault-like” wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(2), 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1174–1180 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

Aceituno, J.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bagnara, P.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K.

D. W. Philion and K. Baker, “Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627228, 627228-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bindi, N.

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a “Foucault-like” wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bortoletto, F.

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

Carbillet, M.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging:pyramid sensor versus spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357(1), L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cecconi, M.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chew, T. Y.

T. Y. Chew, R. M. Clare, and R. G. Lane, “A comparison of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensors,” Opt. Commun. 268(2), 189–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R. M.

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, S. Oberti, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “Adaptive Optics Simulations for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701572, 701572-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chew, R. M. Clare, and R. G. Lane, “A comparison of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensors,” Opt. Commun. 268(2), 189–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

Costa, J.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Costa, J. B.

Crimi, G.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Daly, E. M.

Diolaiti, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208(1-3), 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, R.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorner, B.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

E. Pinna, F. Quirós-Pacheco, S. Esposito, A. Puglisi, and P. Stefanini, “Signal spatial filtering for co-phasing in seeing-limited conditions,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3465–3467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Pyramid sensor for segmented mirror alignment,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2572–2574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369(2), L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4034, 184–189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a “Foucault-like” wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

Fedrigo, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feeney, O.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4034, 184–189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feldt, M.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Femenia, B.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fini, L.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finid, L.

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Rissmann, A.

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, S. Oberti, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “Adaptive Optics Simulations for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701572, 701572-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, G.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghedin, A.

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghedina, A.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghigo, M.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. M.

J. M. Hill and P. Salinari, “The Large Binocular Telescope Project,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 140–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hippler, S.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

Kolb, J.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korkiakoski, V.

V. Korkiakoski, C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, and R. Conan, “Comparison between a model-based and a conventional pyramid sensor reconstructor,” Appl. Opt. 46(24), 6176–6184 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging:pyramid sensor versus spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357(1), L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lane, R. G.

T. Y. Chew, R. M. Clare, and R. G. Lane, “A comparison of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensors,” Opt. Commun. 268(2), 189–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, S. Oberti, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “Adaptive Optics Simulations for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701572, 701572-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Korkiakoski, C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, and R. Conan, “Comparison between a model-based and a conventional pyramid sensor reconstructor,” Appl. Opt. 46(24), 6176–6184 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging:pyramid sensor versus spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357(1), L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

LeDue, J.

Li, H.

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, L.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niero, T.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Oberti, S.

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, S. Oberti, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “Adaptive Optics Simulations for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701572, 701572-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peter, D.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Philion, D. W.

D. W. Philion and K. Baker, “Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627228, 627228-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pinna, E.

Puglisi, A.

Quirós-Pacheco, F.

Ragazzoni, R.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208(1-3), 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a “Foucault-like” wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(2), 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ranfagni, P.

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369(2), L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4034, 184–189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a “Foucault-like” wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, N.

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1174–1180 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, P.

J. M. Hill and P. Salinari, “The Large Binocular Telescope Project,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 140–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, L.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soenke, C.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, P.

Tordo, S.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

Véran, J. P.

Vérinaud, C.

V. Korkiakoski, C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, and R. Conan, “Comparison between a model-based and a conventional pyramid sensor reconstructor,” Appl. Opt. 46(24), 6176–6184 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging:pyramid sensor versus spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357(1), L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233(1-3), 27–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vernet, E.

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208(1-3), 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369(2), L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(2), 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenia, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics-I. The software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1263–1275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging:pyramid sensor versus spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357(1), L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

T. Y. Chew, R. M. Clare, and R. G. Lane, “A comparison of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensors,” Opt. Commun. 268(2), 189–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233(1-3), 27–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208(1-3), 51–60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1174–1180 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (10)

D. W. Philion and K. Baker, “Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627228, 627228-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a “Foucault-like” wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 941–951 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedin, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4034, 184–189 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, S. Oberti, and A. Garcia-Rissmann, “Adaptive Optics Simulations for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701572, 701572-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 869–877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, A. Baruffolo, J. Farinato, A. Ghedina, E. Marchetti, S. Esposito, L. Finid, P. Ranfagni, and F. Bortoletto, “M. D’A1essandro, M. Ghigo, G. Crimi, “The final commissioning phase of the AdOpt@TNG module,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 57–62 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, M. Lombini, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, E. Diolaiti, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, G. Gentile, L. Schreiber, E. Marchetti, J. Kolb, S. Tordo, R. Donaldson, C. Soenke, S. Oberti, E. Fedrigo, E. Vernet, and N. Hubin, “Layer Oriented Wavefront sensor for MAD on Sky operations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155P, 70155P-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hill and P. Salinari, “The Large Binocular Telescope Project,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 140–153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang and H. Li, “Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing and wavefront control algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

D. Peter, M. Feldt, T. Henning, S. Hippler, J. Aceituno, L. Montoya, J. Costa, and B. Dorner, “PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122(887), 63–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Quirós-Pacheco, E. Pinna, S. Esposito, and A. Riccardia, “Double segmentation control with a single phasing sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70123E (2008).

F. Roddier, Adaptive optics in astronomy (Cambridge University Press, UK, 1999).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical sketch diagram of PWFS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch diagram of light field layout.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of TSPWFS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pupil images in the CCD plane when an astigmation aberration incidences respectively two kinds of wavefront sensors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The arrangement of images on detector. (a) images by PWFS (b) images detected simultaneously by TSPWFS with one detector (c) images split along x directional by TSPWFS detect by one detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal difference is due to interference between images. (a) the difference between TSPWFS signals with 1 or 2 CCD detectors (b) difference between signals with PMA and AMA models.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The signals of a d/r0 = 2 phase screen in x and y direction measured by PWFS and TSPWFS. (a) and (c) show PWFS signals in x-direction and y-direction respectively (b) and (d) denote TSPWFS signals in x-direction and y-direction respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of response matrix obtained with different amplitude of Zernike modes. (a) the curve of the condition number of response matrix changing with different given RMS values of Zernike modes to obtain corresponding response matrix (b) the reconstruction precision changing with the Zernike mode RMS to obtain the response matrix.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstruction precisions of PWFS and TSPWFS for single Zernike modes. original wavefront RMS values of (a) and (b) are 0.02λ and 0.15λ respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The optimal loop gain for PWFS and TSPWFS. (a) and (b) are the evolution of SR with different loop gain by PWFS and TSPWFS respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The width of interference area of TSPWFS with two detectors. (a) the normalized intensity distributes along the line perpendicular to the center line between two opposite images with different center distance M′, and the aberration is Z5 with RMS 0.1λ (b) the distribution of normalized intensity changes with same M′ but different RMS value of aberration.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The effect of interference between pupil images with different M′. (a) the measurement accuracy of d/r 0 = 2 changing with M′ (b) the closed-loop performance of d/r 0 = 20 changing with M′.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Tab. 1 Detecting condition and closed-loop performance by PWFS and TSPWFS

Equations (35)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 1 ( x , y ) = u 0 exp [ i 2 π λ φ ( x , y ) ] P ,
E 2 ( u , v ) = 1 λ f 1 F T ( E 1 ( x , y ) ) ( u λ f 1 , v λ f 1 ) .
Φ P = exp [ i 2 π α 0 ( | u | + | v | ) ]
= 1 4 [ 1 + ( 1 ) j sgn ( u ) ] [ 1 + ( 1 ) k sgn ( v ) ] exp ( i 2 π α 0 [ ( 1 ) j + 1 u + ( 1 ) k + 1 v ] ) .
E 3 ( u , v ) = E 2 ( u , v ) Φ P = 1 λ f 1 F T ( E 1 ( x , y ) ) ( u λ f 1 , v λ f 1 ) Φ P .
E 4 ( ξ , η ) = 1 λ f 2 F T ( E 3 ) ( ξ λ f 2 , η λ f 2 ) = f 1 f 2 [ E 1 ( f 1 f 2 ξ , f 1 f 2 η ) H 1 ( ξ , η ) H 2 ( ξ , η ) ] .
K ( ξ , η ) = f 1 f 2 E 1 ( f 1 f 2 ξ , f 1 f 2 η ) H 1 ( ξ , η ) .
K = f 1 4 f 2 { E 1 ( x , y ) [ δ ( x , y ) ( 1 ) j δ ( y ) i π x ( 1 ) k δ ( x ) i π y ( 1 ) j + k π 2 x y ] } = f 1 u 0 4 f 2 { B 1 + i ( 1 ) j B 2 + i ( 1 ) k B 3 ( 1 ) j + k B 4 } .
B 1 = exp [ i 2 π λ φ ( x , y ) ] P B 2 = B 1 [ δ ( y ) π x ] = P exp [ i 2 π λ φ ( x , y ) ] δ ( y y ) π ( x x ) d x d y B 3 = B 1 [ δ ( x ) π y ] = P exp [ i 2 π λ φ ( x , y ) ] δ ( x x ) π ( y y ) d x d y B 4 = B 1 ( 1 π 2 x y ) = P exp [ i 2 π λ φ ( x , y ) ] 1 π 2 ( x x ) ( y y ) d x d y
I 1 = | E 41 | 2 = | K | 2 , ( j = 0 , k = 0 );  I 2 = | E 42 | 2 = | K | 2 , ( j = 1 , k = 0 );  I 3 = | E 43 | 2 = | K | 2 , ( j = 1 , k = 1 );  I 4 = | E 44 | 2 = | K | 2 , ( j = 0 , k = 1 ).
S x = ( I 1 + I 4 ) ( I 2 + I 3 ) | u 0 | 2 ( f 1 f 2 ) 2 = 1 2 [ R e ( i B 1 * B 2 ) R e ( i B 4 * B 3 ) ] ,
S y = ( I 1 + I 2 ) ( I 3 + I 4 ) | u 0 | 2 ( f 1 f 2 ) 2 = 1 2 [ R e ( i B 1 * B 3 ) R e ( i B 4 * B 2 ) ] .
S x = 1 2 P ( y ) P ( y ) sin { 2 π λ [ φ ( x , y ) φ ( x , y ) ] } π ( x x ) d x + 1 2 P ( x ) P ( x ) d y 2 y 0 y 0 d y 1 P ( y 1 ) P ( y 1 ) sin { 2 π λ [ φ ( x , y 2 ) φ ( x 1 , y 1 ) ] } π 3 ( x x 1 ) ( y y 1 ) ( y y 2 ) d x 1 ,
S y = 1 2 P ( x ) P ( x ) sin { 2 π λ [ φ ( x , y ) φ ( x , y ) ] } π ( y y ) d y + 1 2 P ( y ) P ( y ) d x 2 y 0 y 0 d y 1 P ( y 1 ) P ( y 1 ) sin [ 2 π λ [ φ ( x 2 , y ) φ ( x 1 , y 1 ) ] ] π 3 ( x x 1 ) ( y y 1 ) ( x x 2 ) d x 1 .
U 2 x ( u , v ) = a λ f 3 F T ( U 1 ( x , y ) ) ( u λ f 3 , v λ f 3 ) ,
U 2 y ( u , v ) = b λ f 3 F T ( U 1 ( x , y ) ) ( u λ f 3 , v λ f 3 ) .
Φ x = exp [ i 2 π α ( | u | ) ] = 1 2 [ 1 + ( 1 ) t sgn ( u ) ] exp [ i ( 1 ) t + 1 2 π α u ] ,
Φ y = exp [ i 2 π α ( | v | ) ] = 1 2 [ 1 + ( 1 ) t sgn ( v ) ] exp [ i ( 1 ) t + 1 2 π α v ] .
U 3 x ( u , v ) = U 2 x ( u , v ) Φ x = a λ f 3 F T ( U 1 ( x , y ) ) ( u λ f 3 , v λ f 3 ) Φ x ,
U 3 y ( u , v ) = U 2 y ( u , v ) Φ y = b λ f 3 F T ( U 1 ( x , y ) ) ( u λ f 3 , v λ f 3 ) Φ y .
U 4 x ( ξ , η ) = 1 λ f 4 F T ( U 3 x ) ( ξ λ f 4 , η λ f 4 )
U 4 y ( ξ , η ) = 1 λ f 4 F T ( U 3 y ) ( ξ λ f 4 , η λ f 4 )
G x = I x I x + ( f 3 f 4 ) 2 | u 0 | 2 a ,
G y = I y I y + ( f 3 f 4 ) 2 | u 0 | 2 b .
G x = P ( y ) P ( y ) sin { 2 π λ [ φ ( x , y ) φ ( x , y ) ] } π ( x x ) d x ,
G y = P ( x ) P ( x ) sin { 2 π λ [ φ ( x , y ) φ ( x , y ) ] } π ( y y ) d y .
S x = m = 1 N a m { P ( y ) P ( y ) Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) λ ( x x ) d x + P ( x ) P ( x ) d y 2 y 0 y 0 d y 1 P ( y 1 ) P ( y 1 ) Z m ( x , y 2 ) Z m ( x 1 , y 1 ) λ π 2 ( x x 1 ) ( y y 1 ) ( y y 2 ) d x 1 } ,
S y = m = 1 N a m { P ( x ) P ( x ) Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) λ ( y y ) d y + P ( y ) P ( y ) d x 2 y 0 y 0 d y 1 P ( y 1 ) P ( y 1 ) Z m ( x 2 , y ) Z m ( x 1 , y 1 ) λ π 2 ( x x 1 ) ( y y 1 ) ( x x 2 ) d x 1 } .
G x = m = 1 N a m P ( y ) P ( y ) 2 λ Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) ( x x ) d x ,
G y = m = 1 N a m P ( x ) P ( x ) 2 λ Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) ( y y ) d y .
T x m = P ( y ) P ( y ) Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) λ ( x x ) d x + P ( x ) P ( x ) d y 2 y 0 y 0 d y 1 P ( y 1 ) P ( y 1 ) Z m ( x , y 2 ) Z m ( x 1 , y 1 ) λ π 2 ( x x 1 ) ( y y 1 ) ( y y 2 ) d x 1 ,
T y m = P ( x ) P ( x ) Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) λ ( y y ) d y + P ( y ) P ( y ) d x 2 y 0 y 0 d y 1 P ( y 1 ) P ( y 1 ) Z m ( x 2 , y ) Z m ( x 1 , y 1 ) λ π 2 ( x x 1 ) ( y y 1 ) ( x x 2 ) d x 1 .
Q x m = P ( y ) P ( y ) 2 λ Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) ( x x ) d x ,
Q y m = P ( x ) P ( x ) 2 λ Z m ( x , y ) Z m ( x , y ) ( y y ) d y .
M' = { M PWFS ; TSPWFS with 2 CCD 2 M TSPWFS with 1 CCD .

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