Abstract

Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels.

© 2010 OSA

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O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Haeberle and R. Zengerle, “Microfluidic platforms for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 7(9), 1094–1110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Chin, V. Linder, and S. K. Sia, “Lab-on-a-chip devices for global health: past studies and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 7(1), 41–57 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442(7101), 403–411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Single mode optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(2), 696–701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Immersion digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1211–1213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Woods, N. P. Galatsanos, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Stochastic methods for joint registration, restoration, and interpolation of multiple undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(1), 201–213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Squires and S. Quake, “Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. H. Weigl, R. L. Bardell, and C. R. Cabrera, “Lab-on-a-chip for drug development,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 55(3), 349–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

R. C. Hardie, J. G Bognar, E. E Armstrong, and E. A Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Agarwal, A. K.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, E. E

R. C. Hardie, J. G Bognar, E. E Armstrong, and E. A Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, E. E.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardell, R. L.

B. H. Weigl, R. L. Bardell, and C. R. Cabrera, “Lab-on-a-chip for drug development,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 55(3), 349–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, K. J.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baugh, L. R.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beebe, D. J.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishara, W.

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bognar, J. G

R. C. Hardie, J. G Bognar, E. E Armstrong, and E. A Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

Cabrera, C. R.

B. H. Weigl, R. L. Bardell, and C. R. Cabrera, “Lab-on-a-chip for drug development,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 55(3), 349–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, C. D.

C. D. Chin, V. Linder, and S. K. Sia, “Lab-on-a-chip devices for global health: past studies and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 7(1), 41–57 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

Craighead, H.

H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cullen, D.

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittrich, P. S.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, T.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Ali, J.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442(7101), 403–411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, E.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galatsanos, N. P.

N. A. Woods, N. P. Galatsanos, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Stochastic methods for joint registration, restoration, and interpolation of multiple undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(1), 201–213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haddad, W. S.

Haeberle, S.

S. Haeberle and R. Zengerle, “Microfluidic platforms for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 7(9), 1094–1110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardie, R. C.

R. C. Hardie, J. G Bognar, E. E Armstrong, and E. A Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helton, K.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heng, X.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isikman, S. O.

C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahn, R.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, K. F.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442(7101), 403–411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jericho, M. H.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Immersion digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1211–1213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, M. G.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katsaggelos, A. K.

N. A. Woods, N. P. Galatsanos, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Stochastic methods for joint registration, restoration, and interpolation of multiple undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(1), 201–213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khademhosseini, B.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khademhosseinieh, B.

Kreuzer, H. J.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Immersion digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1211–1213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. A.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Linder, V.

C. D. Chin, V. Linder, and S. K. Sia, “Lab-on-a-chip devices for global health: past studies and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 7(1), 41–57 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longworth, J. W.

Manz, A.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPherson, A.

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mudanyali, O.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, M. K.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. C.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Single mode optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(2), 696–701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S.

T. Squires and S. Quake, “Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

Rizzoli, S. O.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

Sencan, I.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sia, S. K.

C. D. Chin, V. Linder, and S. K. Sia, “Lab-on-a-chip devices for global health: past studies and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 7(1), 41–57 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solem, J. C.

Sorger, P. K.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442(7101), 403–411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squires, T.

T. Squires and S. Quake, “Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, P. W.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, T. W.

Tam, M. R.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, D.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, E. A

R. C. Hardie, J. G Bognar, E. E Armstrong, and E. A Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weigl, B. H.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Weigl, R. L. Bardell, and C. R. Cabrera, “Lab-on-a-chip for drug development,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 55(3), 349–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willig, K. I.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woods, N. A.

N. A. Woods, N. P. Galatsanos, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Stochastic methods for joint registration, restoration, and interpolation of multiple undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(1), 201–213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Immersion digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1211–1213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yager, P.

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

S. Haeberle and R. Zengerle, “Microfluidic platforms for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 7(9), 1094–1110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

B. H. Weigl, R. L. Bardell, and C. R. Cabrera, “Lab-on-a-chip for drug development,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 55(3), 349–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Woods, N. P. Galatsanos, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Stochastic methods for joint registration, restoration, and interpolation of multiple undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(1), 201–213 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip 10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Haeberle and R. Zengerle, “Microfluidic platforms for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 7(9), 1094–1110 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Chin, V. Linder, and S. K. Sia, “Lab-on-a-chip devices for global health: past studies and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 7(1), 41–57 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl, “Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health,” Nature 442(7101), 412–418 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Craighead, “Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules,” Nature 442(7101), 387–393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442(7101), 403–411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440(7086), 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

R. C. Hardie, J. G Bognar, E. E Armstrong, and E. A Watson, “High-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

T. Squires and S. Quake, “Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 977–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Z. Zalevsky, and D. Mendlovic, Optical Superresolution (Springer Verlag, 2004).

Y. Fainman, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

R. Oosterbroek, Lab-on-a-Chip: Miniaturized Systems for (bio)chemical Analysis and Synthesis, 1st ed. (Elsevier, 2003).

L. M. Lee, X. Cui, and C. Yang, “The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts,” Biomed Microdevices (2009).

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