Abstract

We theoretically show that a sequence of short laser pulses can efficiently polarize nuclear-spin of atoms/ions. This is a variant of optical pumping with an important difference that a sequence of short laser pulses is used instead of a continuous-wave laser. Such a replacement is particularly useful if the pumping wavelength is in the ultraviolet or vacuum-ultraviolet region where obtaining a continuous-wave light source with a sufficient intensity is very difficult. Because of the use of short laser pulses neither hyperfine transitions nor fine structure transitions are spectrally resolved, which is quite in contrast to the standard optical pumping scheme by a continuous-wave laser. As an example we apply the scheme to polarize the muonium (μ+e, lifetime 2.2 μs), for which the pumping wavelength is 122 nm. From numerical solutions of a set of density matrix equations, we find that the use of only a single, two, and five pulses with a ps duration at the peak intensity of 2 × 108 W/cm2 and a 5 ns time interval results in the degrees of spin-polarization of 33, 50, and 80 %, respectively, within the time scale of a few tens of ns.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Reich and H. J. Jänsch, "Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Na,Li): Optical pumping with electro-optically modulated laser beam," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 288, 349-353 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Dalmas de Réotier, and A. Yaouanc, "Muon spin rotation and relaxation in magnetic materials," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9113-9166 (1997).
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  21. P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
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  23. S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
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  24. P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Bakule and E. Morenzoni, "Generation and application of slow polarized muons," Contemp. Phys. 45, 203-225 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, "Electron spin-polarized alkaline-earth ions produced by multiphoton ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112-2119 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Nakajima, "Control of the spin-polarization of photoelectrons/photoions using short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3786-3788 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. Nakajima, "Effects of laser intensity and applied electric field on coherent control of spin polarization by short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, and T. Kobayashi, "All-optical control and direct detection of ultrafast spin polarization in a multi-valence-electron system," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063404 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Nakajima, "Investigation of ultrafast nuclear spin polarization induced by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 024801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. Nakajima, "Ultrafast nuclear spin polarization for isotopes with large nuclear spin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 572-580 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Fabre, M. Gross, and S. Haroche, "Determination by quantum beat spectroscopy of fine-structure intervals in a series of highly excited sodium D states," Opt. Commun. 13, 393-397 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, and G. W. Series, "Determination of lifetimes and hyperfine structures of 8,9 and 10 2D3/2 states of 133Cs by quantum-beat spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 8, 1406-1414 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  37. E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. A. Bouchene, S. Zamith, and B. Girard, "Spin-polarized electrons produced by a sequence of two femtosecond pulses. Calculation of differential and global polarization rates," J. Phys. B 34, 1497-1512 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of 10-μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 27, 1920-1922 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  40. W. B. Westerveld, K. Becker, P. W. Zetner, J. J. Corr, and J. W. McConkey, "Production and measurement of circular polarization in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 24, 2256-2262 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  41. T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. H. Höchst, R. Patel and F. Middleton, "Multiple-reflection λ /4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 107-114 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  43. L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  44. R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, and T. Kobayashi, "All-optical control and direct detection of ultrafast spin polarization in a multi-valence-electron system," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Nakajima, "Investigation of ultrafast nuclear spin polarization induced by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 024801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Miller, E. de Rafael, and B. L. Roberts, "Muon (g-2) experiment and theory," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 795-881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Nakajima, "Effects of laser intensity and applied electric field on coherent control of spin polarization by short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Bakule and E. Morenzoni, "Generation and application of slow polarized muons," Contemp. Phys. 45, 203-225 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, "Control of the spin-polarization of photoelectrons/photoions using short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3786-3788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, "Electron spin-polarized alkaline-earth ions produced by multiphoton ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112-2119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of 10-μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 27, 1920-1922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. A. Bouchene, S. Zamith, and B. Girard, "Spin-polarized electrons produced by a sequence of two femtosecond pulses. Calculation of differential and global polarization rates," J. Phys. B 34, 1497-1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828-3831 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Dalmas de Réotier, and A. Yaouanc, "Muon spin rotation and relaxation in magnetic materials," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9113-9166 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

H. Höchst, R. Patel and F. Middleton, "Multiple-reflection λ /4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 107-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. W. Schinn, X.-L. Han, and A. Gallagher, "Production and diagnosis of a highly spin-polarized Na beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 169-173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

H. Reich and H. J. Jänsch, "Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Na,Li): Optical pumping with electro-optically modulated laser beam," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 288, 349-353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Marangos, N. Shen, H. Ma, M. H. R. Hutchinson, and J. P. Connerade, "Broadly tunable vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source employing resonant enhanced sum-difference frequency mixing in krypton," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1254-1259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

G. Hilber, A. Lago, and R. Wallenstein, "Broadly tunable vacuum-ultraviolet/extreme-ultraviolet radiation generated by resonant third-order frequency conversion in krypton," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1753-1764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, "Polarization of an atomic sodium beam by laser optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 28, 1195-1197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Wallenstein, "Generation of narrowband tunable VUV radiation at the Lyman-α wavelength," Opt. Commun. 33, 119-122 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. Cotter, "Tunable narrow-band coherent VUV source for the Lyman-alpha region," Opt. Commun. 31, 397-400 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. Koopman, "Nonlinear generation of Lyman-alpha radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. J. Andra, H. J. Plohn, A. Gaupp, and R. Frohling, "Nuclear-spin polarization produced by ion-beam-surface-interaction, its optical detection and use in an atomic quantum-beat experiment," Z. Phys. A 281, 15-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

C. Fabre, M. Gross, and S. Haroche, "Determination by quantum beat spectroscopy of fine-structure intervals in a series of highly excited sodium D states," Opt. Commun. 13, 393-397 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, and G. W. Series, "Determination of lifetimes and hyperfine structures of 8,9 and 10 2D3/2 states of 133Cs by quantum-beat spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 8, 1406-1414 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, "Optical pumping," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169-249 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, L. W.

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, "Polarization of an atomic sodium beam by laser optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 28, 1195-1197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Andra, H. J.

H. J. Andra, H. J. Plohn, A. Gaupp, and R. Frohling, "Nuclear-spin polarization produced by ion-beam-surface-interaction, its optical detection and use in an atomic quantum-beat experiment," Z. Phys. A 281, 15-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Avila, G.

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baartman, R.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bakule, P.

P. Bakule and E. Morenzoni, "Generation and application of slow polarized muons," Contemp. Phys. 45, 203-225 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

Behr, J. A.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benton, D. R.

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bouchene, M. A.

M. A. Bouchene, S. Zamith, and B. Girard, "Spin-polarized electrons produced by a sequence of two femtosecond pulses. Calculation of differential and global polarization rates," J. Phys. B 34, 1497-1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Candelier, V.

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castex, M. C.

L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cates, G. D.

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cerez, P.

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clasie, B.

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connerade, J. P.

Corr, J. J.

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, "Tunable narrow-band coherent VUV source for the Lyman-alpha region," Opt. Commun. 31, 397-400 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, C.

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cusma, J. T.

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, "Polarization of an atomic sodium beam by laser optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 28, 1195-1197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dalmas de Réotier, P.

P. Dalmas de Réotier, and A. Yaouanc, "Muon spin rotation and relaxation in magnetic materials," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9113-9166 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Clercq, E.

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Rafael, E.

J. P. Miller, E. de Rafael, and B. L. Roberts, "Muon (g-2) experiment and theory," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 795-881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deech, J. S.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, and G. W. Series, "Determination of lifetimes and hyperfine structures of 8,9 and 10 2D3/2 states of 133Cs by quantum-beat spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 8, 1406-1414 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, D.

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828-3831 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

C. Fabre, M. Gross, and S. Haroche, "Determination by quantum beat spectroscopy of fine-structure intervals in a series of highly excited sodium D states," Opt. Commun. 13, 393-397 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Frohling, R.

H. J. Andra, H. J. Plohn, A. Gaupp, and R. Frohling, "Nuclear-spin polarization produced by ion-beam-surface-interaction, its optical detection and use in an atomic quantum-beat experiment," Z. Phys. A 281, 15-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fukutani, H.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuyama, Y.

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

Gao, H.

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatzke, M.

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

H. J. Andra, H. J. Plohn, A. Gaupp, and R. Frohling, "Nuclear-spin polarization produced by ion-beam-surface-interaction, its optical detection and use in an atomic quantum-beat experiment," Z. Phys. A 281, 15-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gierschner, F.

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, V.

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, B.

M. A. Bouchene, S. Zamith, and B. Girard, "Spin-polarized electrons produced by a sequence of two femtosecond pulses. Calculation of differential and global polarization rates," J. Phys. B 34, 1497-1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

C. Fabre, M. Gross, and S. Haroche, "Determination by quantum beat spectroscopy of fine-structure intervals in a series of highly excited sodium D states," Opt. Commun. 13, 393-397 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.-L.

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Scheid, D. Kolbe, F. Markert, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Walz, "Continuous-wave Lyman-α generation with solid-state lasers," Opt. Express 17, 11274-11280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828-3831 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Happer, W.

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Happer, "Optical pumping," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169-249 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

C. Fabre, M. Gross, and S. Haroche, "Determination by quantum beat spectroscopy of fine-structure intervals in a series of highly excited sodium D states," Opt. Commun. 13, 393-397 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, O.

S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hasson, K. C.

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, A.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hijmans, T. W.

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilber, G.

Hirayama, Y.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Höchst, H.

H. Höchst, R. Patel and F. Middleton, "Multiple-reflection λ /4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 107-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

Irrgang, R.

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itahashi, K.

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, M.

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jänsch, H. J.

H. Reich and H. J. Jänsch, "Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Na,Li): Optical pumping with electro-optically modulated laser beam," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 288, 349-353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jayamanna, K.

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kandaka, N.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, M. H.

J. J. McClelland, and M. H. Kelley, "Detailed look at aspects of optical pumping in sodium," Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704-3710 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefl, R. F.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, and T. Kobayashi, "All-optical control and direct detection of ultrafast spin polarization in a multi-valence-electron system," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koide, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokhanovskiy, S. A.

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kolbe, D.

Koopman, D.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. Koopman, "Nonlinear generation of Lyman-alpha radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lago, A.

Levy, C. D. P.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lobashev, V. M.

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, O. J.

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luypaert, R.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, and G. W. Series, "Determination of lifetimes and hyperfine structures of 8,9 and 10 2D3/2 states of 133Cs by quantum-beat spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 8, 1406-1414 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Mahon, R.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. Koopman, "Nonlinear generation of Lyman-alpha radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Makimura, S.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

Markert, F.

Matsuda, Y.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, Y.

T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, and T. Kobayashi, "All-optical control and direct detection of ultrafast spin polarization in a multi-valence-electron system," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, T.

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. J.

J. J. McClelland, and M. H. Kelley, "Detailed look at aspects of optical pumping in sodium," Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704-3710 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConkey, J. W.

McDonald, M.

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. Koopman, "Nonlinear generation of Lyman-alpha radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, F.

H. Höchst, R. Patel and F. Middleton, "Multiple-reflection λ /4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 107-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Miller, J. P.

J. P. Miller, E. de Rafael, and B. L. Roberts, "Muon (g-2) experiment and theory," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 795-881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morenzoni, E.

P. Bakule and E. Morenzoni, "Generation and application of slow polarized muons," Contemp. Phys. 45, 203-225 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Museur, L.

L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nagamine, K.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nagamiya, S.

S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, "Ultrafast nuclear spin polarization for isotopes with large nuclear spin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 572-580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, and T. Kobayashi, "All-optical control and direct detection of ultrafast spin polarization in a multi-valence-electron system," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, "Investigation of ultrafast nuclear spin polarization induced by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 024801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, "Effects of laser intensity and applied electric field on coherent control of spin polarization by short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, "Control of the spin-polarization of photoelectrons/photoions using short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3786-3788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, "Electron spin-polarized alkaline-earth ions produced by multiphoton ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112-2119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, C.

L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patel, R.

H. Höchst, R. Patel and F. Middleton, "Multiple-reflection λ /4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 107-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plohn, H. J.

H. J. Andra, H. J. Plohn, A. Gaupp, and R. Frohling, "Nuclear-spin polarization produced by ion-beam-surface-interaction, its optical detection and use in an atomic quantum-beat experiment," Z. Phys. A 281, 15-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Poutissou, R.

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reich, H.

H. Reich and H. J. Jänsch, "Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Na,Li): Optical pumping with electro-optically modulated laser beam," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 288, 349-353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, M. W.

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, D.

L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, B. L.

J. P. Miller, E. de Rafael, and B. L. Roberts, "Muon (g-2) experiment and theory," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 795-881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruegg, R.

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scheid, M.

Schinn, G. W.

Schmor, P. W.

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J.

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Series, G. W.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, and G. W. Series, "Determination of lifetimes and hyperfine structures of 8,9 and 10 2D3/2 states of 133Cs by quantum-beat spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 8, 1406-1414 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Setija, I. D.

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

Shidara, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimomura, K.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sobolevskiy, N. M.

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sokell, E.

E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spieweck, M.

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Straser, P.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E.

Theobald, G.

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volferts, E. A.

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

Walraven, J. T.

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walz, J.

M. Scheid, D. Kolbe, F. Markert, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Walz, "Continuous-wave Lyman-α generation with solid-state lasers," Opt. Express 17, 11274-11280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828-3831 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werij, H. G. C.

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Westerveld, W. B.

Xu, W.

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, T.

S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yaouanc, A.

P. Dalmas de Réotier, and A. Yaouanc, "Muon spin rotation and relaxation in magnetic materials," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9113-9166 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonekura, N.

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, "Electron spin-polarized alkaline-earth ions produced by multiphoton ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112-2119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, M.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zamith, S.

M. A. Bouchene, S. Zamith, and B. Girard, "Spin-polarized electrons produced by a sequence of two femtosecond pulses. Calculation of differential and global polarization rates," J. Phys. B 34, 1497-1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zelenskii, A. N.

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zelenskiy, A. N.

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zetner, P. W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Museur, C. Olivero, D. Riedel, and M. C. Castex, "Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125 nm generated by sum-frequency four-wave mixing in mercury," Appl. Phys. B 70, 499-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, and H. Fukutani, "Production and direct measurement of circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet light with multi-reflection optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2592-2594 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, and D. Koopman, "Nonlinear generation of Lyman-alpha radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305-307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, N. Yonekura, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Simultaneous production of spin polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2103-2105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, "Control of the spin-polarization of photoelectrons/photoions using short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3786-3788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, "Effects of laser intensity and applied electric field on coherent control of spin polarization by short laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

P. Bakule and E. Morenzoni, "Generation and application of slow polarized muons," Contemp. Phys. 45, 203-225 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, "Electron spin-polarized alkaline-earth ions produced by multiphoton ionization," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112-2119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Yonekura, T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Fukuyama, "Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1806-1812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. B (3)

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, and G. W. Series, "Determination of lifetimes and hyperfine structures of 8,9 and 10 2D3/2 states of 133Cs by quantum-beat spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 8, 1406-1414 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Sokell, S. Zamith, M. A. Bouchene, and B. Girard, "Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons," J. Phys. B 33, 2005-2015 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchene, S. Zamith, and B. Girard, "Spin-polarized electrons produced by a sequence of two femtosecond pulses. Calculation of differential and global polarization rates," J. Phys. B 34, 1497-1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

P. Dalmas de Réotier, and A. Yaouanc, "Muon spin rotation and relaxation in magnetic materials," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9113-9166 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. G (1)

P. Strasser, K. Nagamine, T. Matsuzaki, K. Ishida, Y. Matsuda, K. Itahashi, and M. Iwasaki, "Muon spectroscopy with unstable nuclei," J. Phys. G 29, 2047-2049 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Irrgang, M. Drescher, F. Gierschner, M. Spieweck, and U. Heinzmann, "A laser light source for circularly polarized VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 422-427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

A. N. Zelenskiy, S. A. Kokhanovskiy, V. M. Lobashev, N. M. Sobolevskiy, and E. A. Volferts, "A method of polarizing relativistic proton beams by laser radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 227, 429-433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (3)

H. Reich and H. J. Jänsch, "Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Na,Li): Optical pumping with electro-optically modulated laser beam," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 288, 349-353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Zelenskii, K. Jayamanna, C. D. P. Levy, M. McDonald, R. Ruegg, and P. W. Schmor, "Optimization studies of proton polarization in the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H− ion source," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 334, 285-293 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Höchst, R. Patel and F. Middleton, "Multiple-reflection λ /4 phase shifter: a viable alternative to generate circular-polarized synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 347, 107-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. A. (1)

C. D. P. Levy, R. Baartman, J. A. Behr, R. F. Kiefl, M. Pearson, R. Poutissou, A. Hatakeyama, and Y. Hirayama, "The collinear laser beam line at ISAC," Nucl. Phys. A. 746, 206C-209C (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

D. Cotter, "Tunable narrow-band coherent VUV source for the Lyman-alpha region," Opt. Commun. 31, 397-400 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Wallenstein, "Generation of narrowband tunable VUV radiation at the Lyman-α wavelength," Opt. Commun. 33, 119-122 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Fabre, M. Gross, and S. Haroche, "Determination by quantum beat spectroscopy of fine-structure intervals in a series of highly excited sodium D states," Opt. Commun. 13, 393-397 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

T. Nakajima, Y. Matsuo, and T. Kobayashi, "All-optical control and direct detection of ultrafast spin polarization in a multi-valence-electron system," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McClelland, and M. H. Kelley, "Detailed look at aspects of optical pumping in sodium," Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704-3710 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Avila, V. Giordano, V. Candelier, E. de Clercq, G. Theobald, and P. Cerez, "State selection in a cesium beam by laser-diode optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3719-3728 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cusma and L. W. Anderson, "Polarization of an atomic sodium beam by laser optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 28, 1195-1197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Clasie, C. Crawford, J. Seely, W. Xu, D. Dutta, and H. Gao, "Laser-driven target of high-density nuclear-polarized hydrogen gas," Phys. Rev. A 73, 020703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. D. Cates, D. R. Benton, M. Gatzke, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, "Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591-2594 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Setija, H. G. C. Werij, O. J. Luiten, M. W. Reynolds, T. W. Hijmans, and J. T. Walraven, "Optical cooling of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2257-2260 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828-3831 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, "Investigation of ultrafast nuclear spin polarization induced by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 024801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagamiya, K. Nagamine, O. Hashimoto, and T. Yamazaki, "Negative-muon spin rotation at the oxygen site in paramagnetic MnO+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 308-311 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. P. Miller, E. de Rafael, and B. L. Roberts, "Muon (g-2) experiment and theory," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 795-881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. Happer, "Optical pumping," Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169-249 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. (1)

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Straser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58, 1019-1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

H. J. Andra, H. J. Plohn, A. Gaupp, and R. Frohling, "Nuclear-spin polarization produced by ion-beam-surface-interaction, its optical detection and use in an atomic quantum-beat experiment," Z. Phys. A 281, 15-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Level scheme. A sequence of right-circularly polarized short pulses pump the muonium (μ+e) atoms in the ground 1s state to the 2p state. Energy values in the parentheses are those for the hydrogen atoms. (b) Level scheme with a clear distinction of magnetic sublevels. (c) Level scheme using the uncoupled basis for the excited states. Dipole interactions and hyperfine interactions in the excited states are depicted by the blue and red lines, respectively. The up and down arrows by the ket vectors represent the nuclear-spin orientations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed experimental setup. Starting from a ps Ti:Sapphire laser tuned at 730 nm, a three-stage pulse stacker produces 8 pulses with alternating (s- and p-) linear polarization. A polarizer picks up one of the polarization components of the pulses to produce the second-harmonic by a nonlinear crystal. The 365 nm pulses interact with rare gas atoms to produce the third-harmonic at 122 nm (∼10.2 eV). A circular polarizer (CP) appropriately tilted around the optical axis converts its polarization from linear to circular to pump the target atoms. HWP, PBS, PL, NLC, L, and HM stand for a half-wave plate, polarizing beam splitter, linear polarizer, nonlinear crystal, focusing lens, and harmonic mirror, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization after interacting with a single pump pulse as a function of detuning. Solid, long-dashed, dashed, dotted, and dot-dashed curves represent the employed peak intensities, which are 107, 5 × 107, 108, 2 × 108, and 4 × 108 W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization after interacting with two pump pulses as a function of time interval between the two pulses. Solid, long-dashed, dashed, and dotted curves represent the employed peak intensities, which are 107, 5 × 107, 108, and 2 × 108 W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time evolution of polarization for different peak intensities. Solid, long-dashed, dashed, and dotted curves represent the employed peak intensities, which are 107, 5 × 107, 108, and 2×108 W/cm2, respectively. The five 10.2 eV pulses are turned on at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ns with a 5 ns time interval.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same with Fig. 5 but with the initial condition of 50 % spin-polarized before the pulses.

Equations (37)

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E ( t ) = E 0 n = 0 n max exp [ 2 ln 2 ( t n T τ L ) 2 ] .
σ ˙ 00 = γ s p ( 1 6 σ 22 + 1 6 σ 33 + 1 3 σ 44 + 1 3 σ 55 + 1 3 σ 77 + 1 6 σ 88 + 1 2 σ 99 ) i k = 7 , 8 , 9 Ω 0 k ( σ k 0 σ 0 k ) ,
σ ˙ 11 = γ s p ( 2 3 σ 33 + 1 3 σ 55 ) i Ω 13 ( σ 31 σ 13 ) i Ω 15 ( σ 51 σ 15 ) ,
σ ˙ 22 = γ s p σ 22 i Ω 32 ( H ) ( σ 32 σ 23 ) ,
σ ˙ 33 = γ s p σ 33 + i Ω 32 ( H ) ( σ 32 σ 23 ) + i Ω 13 ( σ 31 σ 13 ) ,
σ ˙ 44 = γ s p σ 44 i Ω 54 ( H ) ( σ 54 σ 45 ) ,
σ ˙ 55 = γ s p σ 55 + i Ω 54 ( H ) ( σ 54 σ 45 ) + i Ω 15 ( σ 51 σ 15 ) ,
σ ˙ 66 = γ s p ( 1 6 σ 22 + 1 6 σ 33 + 1 3 σ 44 + 1 3 σ 55 + 1 3 σ 77 + 1 6 σ 88 + 1 2 σ 99 ) i k = 7 , 8 , 9 Ω 6 k ( σ k 6 σ 6 k ) ,
σ ˙ 77 = γ s p σ 77 + i Ω 07 ( σ 70 σ 07 ) + i Ω 67 ( σ 76 σ 67 ) ,
σ ˙ 88 = γ s p σ 88 i Ω 98 ( H ) ( σ 98 σ 89 ) + i Ω 08 ( σ 80 σ 08 ) + i Ω 68 ( σ 86 σ 68 ) ,
σ ˙ 99 = γ s p σ 99 + i Ω 98 ( H ) ( σ 98 σ 89 ) + i Ω 09 ( σ 90 σ 09 ) + i Ω 69 ( σ 96 σ 69 ) ,
σ ˙ 1010 = γ s p ( 2 3 σ 22 + 1 3 σ 44 + 1 3 σ 77 + 2 3 σ 88 + σ 1111 ) i Ω 1011 ( σ 1110 σ 1011 ) ,
σ ˙ 1111 = γ s p σ 1111 + i Ω 1011 ( σ 1110 σ 1011 ) ,
σ ˙ 60 = i ω 60 σ 60 i j = 7 to 9 Ω 6 j σ j 0 + i j = 7 , 9 Ω j 0 σ 6 j ,
σ ˙ 70 = ( i Δ 70 γ s p 2 ) σ 70 + i Ω 70 ( σ 77 σ 00 ) i Ω 76 σ 60 + i Ω 80 σ 78 + i Ω 90 σ 79 ,
σ ˙ 80 = ( i Δ 80 γ s p 2 ) σ 80 i Ω 89 ( H ) σ 90 + i Ω 80 ( σ 88 σ 00 ) i Ω 86 σ 60 + i Ω 70 σ 87 + i Ω 90 σ 89 ,
σ ˙ 90 = ( i Δ 90 γ s p 2 ) σ 90 i Ω 98 ( H ) σ 80 + i Ω 90 ( σ 99 σ 00 ) i Ω 96 σ 60 + i Ω 70 σ 97 + i Ω 80 σ 98 ,
σ ˙ 21 = ( i Δ 21 γ s p 2 ) σ 21 i Ω 23 ( H ) σ 31 + i Ω 31 σ 23 + i Ω 51 σ 25 ,
σ ˙ 31 = ( i Δ 31 γ s p 2 ) σ 31 i Ω 32 ( H ) σ 21 + i Ω 31 ( σ 33 σ 11 ) + i Ω 51 σ 35 ,
σ ˙ 41 = ( i Δ 41 γ s p 2 ) σ 41 i Ω 45 ( H ) σ 51 + i Ω 31 σ 43 + i Ω 51 σ 45 ,
σ ˙ 51 = ( i Δ 51 γ s p 2 ) σ 51 i Ω 54 ( H ) σ 41 + i Ω 51 ( σ 55 σ 11 ) + i Ω 31 σ 53 ,
σ ˙ 32 = γ s p σ 32 + i Ω 23 ( H ) ( σ 33 σ 22 ) i Ω 31 σ 12 ,
σ ˙ 42 = ( ω 42 γ s p ) σ 42 i Ω 45 ( H ) σ 52 + i Ω 32 ( H ) σ 43 ,
σ ˙ 52 = ( ω 52 γ s p ) σ 52 i Ω 54 ( H ) σ 42 + i Ω 32 ( H ) σ 53 i Ω 51 σ 12 ,
σ ˙ 43 = ( i ω 43 γ s p ) σ 43 i Ω 45 ( H ) σ 53 + i Ω 23 ( H ) σ 42 + i Ω 13 σ 41 ,
σ ˙ 53 = ( i ω 53 γ s p ) σ 53 i Ω 54 ( H ) σ 43 + i Ω 23 ( H ) σ 52 i Ω 51 σ 13 + i Ω 13 σ 51 ,
σ ˙ 54 = γ s p σ 54 + i Ω 54 ( H ) ( σ 55 σ 44 ) i Ω 51 σ 14 ,
σ ˙ 76 = ( i Δ 76 γ s p 2 ) σ 76 + i Ω 76 ( σ 77 σ 66 ) i Ω 70 σ 06 + i Ω 86 σ 78 + i Ω 96 σ 79 ,
σ ˙ 86 = ( i Δ 86 γ s p 2 ) σ 86 i Ω 89 ( H ) σ 96 + i Ω 86 ( σ 88 σ 66 ) i Ω 80 σ 06 + i Ω 76 σ 87 + i Ω 96 σ 89 ,
σ ˙ 96 = ( i Δ 96 γ s p 2 ) σ 96 i Ω 98 ( H ) σ 86 + i Ω 96 ( σ 99 σ 66 ) i Ω 90 σ 06 + i Ω 76 σ 97 + i Ω 86 σ 98 ,
σ ˙ 87 = ( i ω 87 γ s p ) σ 87 i Ω 89 ( H ) σ 97 i Ω 80 σ 07 i Ω 86 σ 67 + i Ω 07 σ 80 + i Ω 67 σ 86 ,
σ ˙ 97 = ( i ω 97 γ s p ) σ 97 i Ω 98 ( H ) σ 87 i Ω 90 σ 07 i Ω 97 σ 67 + i Ω 07 σ 90 + i Ω 67 σ 96 ,
σ ˙ 98 = γ s p σ 98 + i Ω 98 ( H ) ( σ 99 σ 88 ) i Ω 90 σ 08 i Ω 96 σ 68 + i Ω 08 σ 90 + i Ω 68 σ 96 ,
σ ˙ 1110 = ( Δ 1110 γ s p 2 ) σ 1110 + i Ω 1110 ( σ 1111 σ 1010 ) ,
P = P up P down P up + P down ,
P u p = 1 2 σ 00 ( t = ) + 1 2 σ 66 ( t = ) + σ 1010 ( t = )
P down = 1 2 σ 00 ( t = ) + σ 11 ( t = ) + 1 2 σ 66 ( t = ) .

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