Abstract

We present the first thermospheric wind measurements using a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometer and the oxygen red-line nightglow emission. The ground-based observations were made from Washington, DC and include simultaneous calibration measurements to track and correct instrument drifts. Even though the measurements were made under challenging thermal and light pollution conditions, they are of good quality with photon statistics uncertainties between about three and twenty-nine meters per second, depending on the nightglow intensity. The wind data are commensurate with a representative set of Millstone Hill Fabry-Perot wind measurements selected for similar geomagnetic and solar cycle conditions.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, D. D. Babcock, M. H. Stevens, and D. E. Siskind, “Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (DASH): An innovative concept for measuring winds in planetary atmospheres,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030T (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
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  8. J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Harlander, C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Design and laboratory tests of a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26430-26440 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Englert and J. M. Harlander, “Flatfielding in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4583–4590 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, and M. E. Zipf, “Vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(6), 621–629 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Buonsanto, J. C. Foster, and D. P. Sipler, “Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbance of March and April 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1225–1243 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. T. Emmert, B. G. Fejer, and D. P. Sipler, “Climatology and latitudinal gradients of quiet time thermospheric neutral winds over Millstone Hill from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1196 (2003), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. E. Dickinson, E. C. Ridley, and R. G. Roble, “A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1499–1512 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. G. Roble, R. E. Dickinson, and E. C. Ridley, “Global circulation and temperature structure of themosphere with high-latitude plasma convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 87(A3), 1599–1614 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Design and laboratory tests of a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26430-26440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, D. D. Babcock, M. H. Stevens, and D. E. Siskind, “Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (DASH): An innovative concept for measuring winds in planetary atmospheres,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030T (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert and J. M. Harlander, “Flatfielding in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4583–4590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. T. Emmert, B. G. Fejer, and D. P. Sipler, “Climatology and latitudinal gradients of quiet time thermospheric neutral winds over Millstone Hill from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1196 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, and M. E. Zipf, “Vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(6), 621–629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Buonsanto, J. C. Foster, and D. P. Sipler, “Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbance of March and April 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1225–1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. G. Roble, R. E. Dickinson, and E. C. Ridley, “Global circulation and temperature structure of themosphere with high-latitude plasma convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 87(A3), 1599–1614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. E. Dickinson, E. C. Ridley, and R. G. Roble, “A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1499–1512 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D. D.

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, and M. E. Zipf, “Vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(6), 621–629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buonsanto, M. J.

M. J. Buonsanto, J. C. Foster, and D. P. Sipler, “Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbance of March and April 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1225–1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardon, J. G.

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, R. E.

R. G. Roble, R. E. Dickinson, and E. C. Ridley, “Global circulation and temperature structure of themosphere with high-latitude plasma convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 87(A3), 1599–1614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dickinson, E. C. Ridley, and R. G. Roble, “A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1499–1512 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, J. T.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, B. G. Fejer, and D. P. Sipler, “Climatology and latitudinal gradients of quiet time thermospheric neutral winds over Millstone Hill from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1196 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Faivre, M. L.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Fejer, B. G.

J. T. Emmert, B. G. Fejer, and D. P. Sipler, “Climatology and latitudinal gradients of quiet time thermospheric neutral winds over Millstone Hill from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1196 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Foster, J. C.

M. J. Buonsanto, J. C. Foster, and D. P. Sipler, “Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbance of March and April 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1225–1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, M. E.

D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J. M.

J. M. Harlander, C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Design and laboratory tests of a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26430-26440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert and J. M. Harlander, “Flatfielding in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4583–4590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, D. D. Babcock, M. H. Stevens, and D. E. Siskind, “Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (DASH): An innovative concept for measuring winds in planetary atmospheres,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030T (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, M. J.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Niciejewski, R. J.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ortland, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. J.

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, E. C.

R. G. Roble, R. E. Dickinson, and E. C. Ridley, “Global circulation and temperature structure of themosphere with high-latitude plasma convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 87(A3), 1599–1614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, E. C.

R. E. Dickinson, E. C. Ridley, and R. G. Roble, “A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1499–1512 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

R. G. Roble, R. E. Dickinson, and E. C. Ridley, “Global circulation and temperature structure of themosphere with high-latitude plasma convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 87(A3), 1599–1614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dickinson, E. C. Ridley, and R. G. Roble, “A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1499–1512 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

J. M. Harlander, C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Design and laboratory tests of a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26430-26440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D. P.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, B. G. Fejer, and D. P. Sipler, “Climatology and latitudinal gradients of quiet time thermospheric neutral winds over Millstone Hill from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1196 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, and M. E. Zipf, “Vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(6), 621–629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Buonsanto, J. C. Foster, and D. P. Sipler, “Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbance of March and April 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1225–1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siskind, D. E.

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, D. D. Babcock, M. H. Stevens, and D. E. Siskind, “Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (DASH): An innovative concept for measuring winds in planetary atmospheres,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. H.

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, D. D. Babcock, M. H. Stevens, and D. E. Siskind, “Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (DASH): An innovative concept for measuring winds in planetary atmospheres,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tepley, C. A.

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zipf, M. E.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, and M. E. Zipf, “Vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(6), 621–629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (1)

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, and M. E. Zipf, “Vertical winds in the midlatitude thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(6), 621–629 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (10)

D. P. Sipler, M. E. Hagan, M. E. Zipf, and M. A. Biondi, “Combined optical and radar wind measurements in the F Region over Millstone Hill,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A12), 21,255–21,262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Buonsanto, J. C. Foster, and D. P. Sipler, “Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbance of March and April 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1225–1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, B. G. Fejer, and D. P. Sipler, “Climatology and latitudinal gradients of quiet time thermospheric neutral winds over Millstone Hill from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1196 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dickinson, E. C. Ridley, and R. G. Roble, “A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1499–1512 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Roble, R. E. Dickinson, and E. C. Ridley, “Global circulation and temperature structure of themosphere with high-latitude plasma convection,” J. Geophys. Res. 87(A3), 1599–1614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Emmert, M. L. Faivre, G. Hernandez, M. J. Jarvis, J. W. Meriwether, R. J. Niciejewski, D. P. Sipler, and C. A. Tepley, “Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 1. Local time, latitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A12), A12302 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The high-resolution Doppler imager on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D20), D20306 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, D. D. Babcock, M. H. Stevens, and D. E. Siskind, “Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (DASH): An innovative concept for measuring winds in planetary atmospheres,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. C. Mankins, “Technology Readiness Levels: A White Paper,” NASA, Office of Space Access and Technology, Advanced Concepts Office (1995) http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codeq/trl/trl.pdf .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Picture of the main components of the REDDI instrument. (B) Schematic of the REDDI instrument. Component details are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raw image, spike and hot pixel corrected, taken around 21:30 EDT of June 7, 2010 using the southward look direction (180° azimuth, 35° elevation).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Ideal interferograms of a purely temperature broadened emission line with and without Doppler shift. (B) The top two solid curves are the phases corresponding to the interferograms shown in (A). The bottom curve represents the phase of a simultaneously observed calibration line (not shown in (A)). The dotted lines show an example of the path difference interval sampled by a DASH instrument and the center of the interval. The dashed lines indicate the interferogram phases at the center of the sampled path differences, with and without Doppler shift for the atmospheric emission line and for the calibration line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Sample interferograms. Green: center row of CCD (row 256). Black: average of rows 10-450. (B) Time series of brightnesses for the measurements of June 7/8, 2010 for the three viewing directions and the calibration line. A strong cloud signal is apparent around −0.75h (23:15) EDT for the southward view and the calibration signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lower array of curves: Phase distortion of calibration line (Ne) interferograms (June 7/8, 2010), referenced to the left hand abscissa. Upper array of curves: Phase distortion of red line interferograms (June 7/8, 2010), referenced to the right hand abscissa. The first 20 red line measurements of the night, for which the signal is large, are highlighted in black. The vertical dashed lines indicate the horizontal limits within which a straight line was fitted to the phase data to determine the amount of distortion. These data exclude the two cloud observations shown in Fig. 4B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) ambient temperature measured with sensor in air behind the interferometer enclosure. (B) image shift retrieved from grating marks (fiducials) and second order polynomial fitted to it.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thermally induced phase offset for the calibration line (black) and the oxygen red line (gray triangles). The phase offset is extrapolated from the central half of the measured phase curves (Pixels 128−383) to avoid edge effects and residual phase distortion effects. After the initial hours of the measurement series, the phase offset extrapolation for the oxygen red line is much more uncertain than for the calibration line, due to the decreased signal level. Even though there is significant uncertainty in this extrapolated data, it supports the assumption that the phase offset for both lines is nearly identical.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(A) and (B): Retrieved phases, corrected for phase distortion and image shift on the CCD. Each phase value is the value of a linear fit to the data at the center of the path difference interval. The absolute phase of the calibration source phase is shifted so that the first phase point is zero. The sky measurements are shifted so that the first 10 zenith phases overlap with the calibration source phases. This way, the calibration phases, rather than the zenith phases, which have significantly larger uncertainties can be used for the zero wind calibration. Note that the error bars shown here are simulated, one sigma shot noise contributions. The uncertainties due to shot noise generally increase with time, due to the decreasing airglow brightness, as shown in Fig. 5. The one observation contaminated by the cloud on July 7, 2010 is not included in this data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The green lines show REDDI wind measurements taken on the night of 20/21 May, 2010. The red lines show REDDI wind measurements taken on the night of 7/8 June, 2010. The lighter shading depicts an estimate of the 1σ photon shot noise uncertainty of the measurement, which dominates the error in the wind measurements throughout most of the night. Both dates were geomagnetically quiet (Kp = 2) and near solar minimum (F10.7 ≈70). Panel (A) shows the meridional component (positive northward) of the horizontal wind, and panel (B) shows the zonal component (positive eastward). The location of the meridional wind measurement is about (35.5°N, 77°W), and that of the zonal wind measurement is about (39°N, 73°W). The gray lines show 30 nights, between 1994 and 1997, of measurements by the Millstone Hill Fabry-Perot Interferometer [1517]. The data were selected to approximate the geophysical conditions of the REDDI measurements: Day of year 110–160, Kp ≤ 3.3, F10.7 ≤ 90. The location of the Millstone Hill observatory is about (43°N, 71°W). The black circles show averages of the Millstone Hill data in 2-hour local time bins; error bars denote the standard deviation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Instrument Components

Equations (9)

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I ( L ) = 1 2 0 B ( σ ) [ 1 + cos { 2 π L ( σ ( v ) σ 0 ) } ]   d σ
I S ( L ) = C × [ 1 + cos { 2 π L ( σ ( v ) σ 0 ) } × exp { 2 π 2 σ D 2 L 2 } ]
σ D = σ E k T m c 2
L O P T = 1 2 π σ D
δ Φ ( L ) = 2 π L σ v c
I S ( i ) = C × [ 1 + cos { 2 π ( L i + Δ L ( T ) ) ( σ ( v ) σ 0 Δ σ 0 ( T ) ) + Δ Φ ( T , σ ) } ×       exp { 2 π 2 σ D 2 ( L i + Δ L ( T ) ) 2 } ]
Φ ( i ) = 2 π ( L i + Δ L ( T ) ) ( σ ( v ) σ 0 Δ σ 0 ( T ) ) + Δ Φ ( T , σ )
Δ Φ 1 = Δ Φ 2 × σ 1 σ 2
Φ O I ( i ) Φ C A L ( i ) = 2 π ( σ O I ( v ) σ C A L ) ( L i + Δ L ( T ) )                   + Δ Φ C A L ( T , σ C A L ) ( σ O I σ C A L 1 )

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