Abstract

We present the results of far field measurements of the complete 3D dispersion relation of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect induced by an integrated quantum well nanodevice. The light modulations in the far field, where the surface plasmons are extracted by a grating, has been calculated for a continuum of energies and wavevectors injected by the luminescent substrate. We introduce a novel experimental method for direct mapping of the EM wave dispersion that enables the monitoring of massive amounts of light-scattering related information. The quasi-real time method is applied for tracking, in the E(k) space, the SPR peak surfaces generated by the investigated nanodevice. Those additional dimensions, measured with scalable tracking precision, reveal anisotropic surficial interactions and provide spectroscopic response for SPR.

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  1. H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).
  2. R. B. M. Schasfoort, and A. J. Tudos, Handbook of surface plasmon resonance (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2008).
  3. H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: improvement of the resolution by rotation of the object,” Appl. Opt. 32(13), 2426–2430 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon assisted photoluminescence in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon effects induced by uncollimated emission of semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10411–10418 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Jimenez, D. Lepage, J. Beauvais, and J. J. Dubowski, “Quality of surfaces in the fabrication of monolithic integrated light source SPR system for bio-sensing purposes,” Microelectron. Eng. (to be published).
  8. A. Giannattasio and W. L. Barnes, “Direct observation of surface plasmon-polariton dispersion,” Opt. Express 13(2), 428–434 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, “Sensitivity enhancement in grating coupled surface plasmon resonance by azimuthal control,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12145–12154 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).
  11. C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).

2009 (3)

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon effects induced by uncollimated emission of semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10411–10418 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Romanato, K. H. Lee, H. K. Kang, G. Ruffato, and C. C. Wong, “Sensitivity enhancement in grating coupled surface plasmon resonance by azimuthal control,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12145–12154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon assisted photoluminescence in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

1993 (1)

1988 (2)

H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arudra, P.

P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).

Barnes, W. L.

Beauvais, J.

A. Jimenez, D. Lepage, J. Beauvais, and J. J. Dubowski, “Quality of surfaces in the fabrication of monolithic integrated light source SPR system for bio-sensing purposes,” Microelectron. Eng. (to be published).

Bisson-Viens, M.

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Bruijn, H. E.

Dubowski, J. J.

P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon effects induced by uncollimated emission of semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10411–10418 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon assisted photoluminescence in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jimenez, D. Lepage, J. Beauvais, and J. J. Dubowski, “Quality of surfaces in the fabrication of monolithic integrated light source SPR system for bio-sensing purposes,” Microelectron. Eng. (to be published).

Frost, E.

P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).

Giannattasio, A.

Greve, J.

Jimenez, A.

A. Jimenez, D. Lepage, J. Beauvais, and J. J. Dubowski, “Quality of surfaces in the fabrication of monolithic integrated light source SPR system for bio-sensing purposes,” Microelectron. Eng. (to be published).

Kang, H. K.

Kim, C. K.

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

Lee, K. H.

Lepage, D.

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon effects induced by uncollimated emission of semiconductor microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10411–10418 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon assisted photoluminescence in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jimenez, D. Lepage, J. Beauvais, and J. J. Dubowski, “Quality of surfaces in the fabrication of monolithic integrated light source SPR system for bio-sensing purposes,” Microelectron. Eng. (to be published).

Marshall, G. M.

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M.

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguiffo-Podie, Y.

P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).

Raether, H.

H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

Romanato, F.

Rothenhäusler, B.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ruffato, G.

Wasilewski, Z.

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Lepage and J. J. Dubowski, “Surface plasmon assisted photoluminescence in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. K. Kim, G. M. Marshall, M. Martin, M. Bisson-Viens, Z. Wasilewski, and J. J. Dubowski, “Formation dynamics of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on (001) GaAs observed with photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. Arudra, Y. Nguiffo-Podie, E. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “Decomposition of Thimerosal and Dynamics of Thiosalicylic Acid Attachment on GaAs(001) Surface Observed with in Situ Photoluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13657–13662 (2010).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Jimenez, D. Lepage, J. Beauvais, and J. J. Dubowski, “Quality of surfaces in the fabrication of monolithic integrated light source SPR system for bio-sensing purposes,” Microelectron. Eng. (to be published).

Nature (1)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Raether, “Surface-Plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

Other (1)

R. B. M. Schasfoort, and A. J. Tudos, Handbook of surface plasmon resonance (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) SPR tracking consists in probing the resonance phenomena across the dispersion relation E(k) of the charge coupled EM wave under fixed conditions in either energy, E, or in wavevector kll , function of the coupling angles. b) Under specific circumstances, SPR can be induced at any energies where kll = kSPR (E). The resulting surfaces in E(k) can be employed for high sensitivity spectro-angular SPR tracking.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(main) A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the architecture comprising an embedded QW structure, an adaptative layer of dielectric and a gold interface with air. (insert) The embedded semiconductor (ε1) emits an uncollimated and usually incoherent light. At a fixed energy, the DMD interface (ε2 - ε3 - ε4) is exposed to a continuous range of wavevector excitations taking place in the Fourier space (kll ) and coupling all the photonic modes supported by the architecture. If the light source emits a broad energy spectrum, a continuum of the dispersion relations E(kll ) can be met.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Calculated intensity dispersion in I(kx,ky) for the architecture presented in Fig. 2 and a fixed energy of 1.476 eV. The dominant maxima are induced by the in-plane SPs, which are coupled at the 0th order between the Au and air layer, diffracted by the unidimensional grating, as illustrated in Fig. 3b. The black lines are tracking the SPR maxima in k. Fig. 3c shows a cross section at ky = 0 of the I(E, kx), for various energies emitted by the QW structure. Figure 3d illustrates how the main SP features are diffracted in the ± 1st orders. Again, the black lines are following the local maxima from SPR at different energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hyperspectral setup for mapping of the SPR effect. The integrated SPR microstructure is placed under a microscope objective (MO). The EM emissions from the sample are collimated by the MO and separated spectrally by a volume Bragg grating (VBG). The Fourier plane is then imaged onto a camera. The resulting measurements are 3D cubes of intensities distributed over the emitted energies and collected wavevectors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Measured (kx,ky) dispersion at 1.476 eV for the architecture presented in Fig. 2. The dominant maxima are induced by the in-plane SPs. The dotted black lines are the analytical SPR peaks shown in Fig. 3 while the white dots are the experimental local maxima. Figure 5b shows another cut at ky = 0 for all the energies emitted by the QW, showing a projected dispersion relation E(kx). Again, the dotted black lines are the analytical peaks presented in Fig. 3 and the white dots, the experimental local maxima tracking the SPR. Both figures are in very good concordance with the calculations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured SPR dispersion in I(E,kx,ky) for the integrated architecture presented in Fig. 2. The 3D SPR is extracted from the hyperspectral cube as local maxima, as exemplified by the black dots. The displacement of the 3D SPR in time should provide highly precise spectro-angular information on the biochemical perturbations within the SPs evanescent fields, typically between 100 and 200 nm from the surface.

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