Abstract

A microfluidic double heterostructure cavity is created in a silicon planar photonic crystal waveguide by selective infiltration of a liquid crystal. The spectral evolution of the cavity resonances probed by evanescent coupling reveals that the liquid crystal evaporates, even at room temperature, despite its relatively low vapor pressure of 5 × 10−3 Pa. We explore the infiltration and evaporation dynamics of the liquid crystal within the cavity using a Fabry-Perot model that accounts for the joint effects of liquid volume reduction and cavity length variation due to liquid evaporation. While discussing how the pattern of the infiltrated liquid can be optimized to restrict evaporation, we find that the experimental behavior is consistent with basic microfluidic relations considering the small volumes of liquids and large surface areas present in our structure.

© 2010 OSA

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  33. Data provided by supplier, Nematel GmbH, Mainz, Germany.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. L. R. Fisher, R. A. Gamble, and J. Middlehurst, “The Kelvin equation and the capillary condensation of water,” Nature 290(5807), 575–576 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. K. Lee, S. H. Kim, S. M. Yang, Y. H. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regrency, and P. Viktorovitch, “Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6515–6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Design of Photonic Crystal Nanocavity With Q-Factor of ~109,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1532–1539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, “Reconfigurable multimode photonic-crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11995–12001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, “Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, “Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, R. McPhedran, D. J. Moss, M. J. Steel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization and modeling of Fano resonances in chalcogenide photonic crystal membranes,” Opt. Express 14(1), 369–376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Brugioni and R. Meucci, “Refractive indices of liquid crystals E7 and K15 in the mid- and near-IR regions,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, and M. J. Steel, “Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12451–12456 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Etchegoin, A. Fainstein, and R. G. Pregliasco, “Optical nonlinearities in the supercooled phase of nematic liquid crystal drops,” Physica D 134(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Elbaum and S. G. Lipson, “How does a thin wetted film dry up?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3562–3565 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

L. R. Fisher, R. A. Gamble, and J. Middlehurst, “The Kelvin equation and the capillary condensation of water,” Nature 290(5807), 575–576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1913 (1)

I. Langmuir, “The Vapor Pressure of Metallic Tungsten,” Phys. Rev. 2(5), 329–342 (1913).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

Anand, S.

P. El-Kallassi, R. Ferrini, L. Zuppiroli, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, A. Berrier, S. Anand, and A. Talneau, “Optical tuning of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with organic molecules,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Atwater, H.

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, “Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4699–4707 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, “Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1562 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balog, S.

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bog, U.

Brugioni, S.

Busch, K.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

Citrin, D. S.

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L. A.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dündar, M. A.

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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
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Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
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Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
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P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, “Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1562 (2008).
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P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini, and L. Zuppiroli, “Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1562 (2008).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
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C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, R. McPhedran, D. J. Moss, M. J. Steel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization and modeling of Fano resonances in chalcogenide photonic crystal membranes,” Opt. Express 14(1), 369–376 (2006).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
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C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
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Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
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C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
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Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
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Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Karouta, F.

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
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M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kicken, H. H. J. E.

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
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H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
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Kitzerow, H. S. R.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
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Li, L. H.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Elbaum and S. G. Lipson, “How does a thin wetted film dry up?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3562–3565 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Mägi, E.

Marsmann, H.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthias, H.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, “Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4699–4707 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, R. McPhedran, D. J. Moss, M. J. Steel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization and modeling of Fano resonances in chalcogenide photonic crystal membranes,” Opt. Express 14(1), 369–376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Mertens, G.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meucci, R.

Middlehurst, J.

L. R. Fisher, R. A. Gamble, and J. Middlehurst, “The Kelvin equation and the capillary condensation of water,” Nature 290(5807), 575–576 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Mulot, M.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubert, M.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Nötzel, R.

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nüesch, F.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

O'Faolain, L.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, H.

Ozaki, M.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

Pregliasco, R. G.

P. Etchegoin, A. Fainstein, and R. G. Pregliasco, “Optical nonlinearities in the supercooled phase of nematic liquid crystal drops,” Physica D 134(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, “Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4699–4707 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regrency, P.

Reithmaier, J. P.

Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rockwood, T.

Röder, T.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salemink, H. W. M.

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, B.

C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schuller, Ch.

Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Shimoda, Y.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silov, A. Yu.

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

Smith, C. L. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Talneau, A.

Tanaka, Y.

Toader, O.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Drift, E.

van der Heijden, R. W.

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S. M.

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wild, B.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: optical characterization of molecule orientation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, “Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4699–4707 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. K. C.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. M.

Yoshino, K.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zabelin, V.

Zani, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zimmermann, J.

Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zuppiroli, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. L. C. Smith, A. Graham, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, R. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. S. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, “Two and three-dimensional photonic crystals made of macroporous silicon and liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2767 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Schuller, J. P. Reithmaier, J. Zimmermann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and S. Anand, “Polarization-dependent optical properties of planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dündar, H. H. J. E. Kicken, A. Yu. Silov, R. Nötzel, F. Karouta, H. W. M. Salemink, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Birefringence-induced mode-dependent tuning of liquid crystal infiltrated InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios, M. Holgado, O. Guarneros, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, R. Casquel, and H. Sohlström, “Reconfiguration of microring resonators by liquid adhesion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, “Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(10), 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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C. Grillet, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, R. McPhedran, D. J. Moss, M. J. Steel, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization and modeling of Fano resonances in chalcogenide photonic crystal membranes,” Opt. Express 14(1), 369–376 (2006).
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S. M. Weiss, H. Ouyang, J. Zhang, and P. M. Fauchet, “Electrical and thermal modulation of silicon photonic bandgap microcavities containing liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1090–1097 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, “Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4699–4707 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, and M. J. Steel, “Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12451–12456 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, S. K. Lee, S. H. Kim, S. M. Yang, Y. H. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regrency, and P. Viktorovitch, “Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6515–6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, “Reconfigurable multimode photonic-crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11995–12001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. J. E. Kicken, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, E. van der Drift, and H. W. M. Salemink, “Wavelength tuning of planar photonic crystals by local processing of individual holes,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22005–22011 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gösele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B 61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Data provided by supplier, Nematel GmbH, Mainz, Germany.

S. Karnutsch, Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Monat and B. J. Eggleton “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits using microfluidics,” in Optofluidics, Y. Fainman, L. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Eds, (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY., 2009)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscope image of infiltrated cavity. (b) Calculated dispersion relations of the W0.9 waveguide without infill (“Uninfiltrated PhC”), and after infiltration (“infiltrated PhC”).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectrum through the tapered fiber coupled to the waveguide before and after infiltration. (b) Close up of one resonance along with a Lorentzian fit to extract the (loaded) Q-factor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra through the tapered fiber coupled to the waveguide at different times after the infiltration at 20 °C. (b) Same as (a), but at a higher temperature (55 °C) after the heater is turned on at 37 min. (c) Optical microscope images showing the time evolution of a LC infiltrated cavity at the two different temperatures investigated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated dispersion relations of the W0.9 waveguide before infiltration and after infiltration (lines), with LC index 1.54. (Blue and red dots) obtained using Eq. (2). (Dashed lines) correspond to dispersion for a 10nm and 50nm top layer only (blue) and 10nm top layer plus partially (74%) infiltrated PhC (brown) (b) (Blue triangles) Cut off frequency versus time (bottom axis), obtained from the FP model using three consequential FP resonance from the experimental data of Fig. 3 and cutoff frequencies calculated with Bandsolve for varying amount of liquid in the PhC (top axis) and three different values of the LC index of (red) 1.5, (purple) 1.6 and (green) 1.66.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

. Calculated effective cavity length obtained from Eq. (3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra through the tapered fiber coupled to the waveguide at different times after the infiltration at 20 °C in the resonances region (color dots), and FP modes reconstruction using Eq. (1) for different times. (Red lines)

Equations (5)

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T = 1 1 + F Sin 2 (kL) .
ω ( k ) = ω 0 + 80 ( k red 1 2 ) 6 ,
m π k m = ( m 1 ) π k m 1 = ( m 2 ) π k m 2 .
d m d t = p s M 2 π R T ,
p = p s exp ( p c a p V m o l R T ) ,

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