Abstract

Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to characterize the temperature dependent vibrational properties of three threat-related materials: 4-amino-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). These materials are characterized as thin polycrystalline layers deposited in the 50 micron gap of a metal parallel plate waveguide. For each material waveguide THz-TDS at least partially resolves the underlying vibrational spectrum and reveals new features that have not been observed in previous free space measurements of these materials. Strong experimental evidence for a phase transformation is observed for 4A-DNT as the polycrystalline layer on the waveguide surface is cooled to near 200 K. For PETN a highly resolved spectrum containing eleven vibrational lines is observed at 11 K with full-width at half maximum linewidths ranging from 7 GHz to 40 GHz. Based on comparison to measurements in the literature, our PETN measurement suggests that it is possible to produce narrow linewidths from a polycrystalline layer that approach those from a single crystal. Finally, for HMX, a highly resolved vibrational spectrum is measured that is assigned to the metastable gamma polymorph.

© 2010 OSA

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    [Crossref]
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  7. T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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  9. Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  22. C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. K.C. Oppenheim, T.M. Korter, J.S. Melinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “A solid-state density functional theory investigation of the structural isomers 1,2-dicyanobenzene and 1,3-dicyanobenzene” accepted for publication in J. Phys. Chem. A.

2010 (1)

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Fan, A. Burnett, P. C. Upadhya, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Far-infrared spectroscopic characterization of explosives for security applications using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(6), 638–643 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12060–12067 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1617–1619 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[Crossref]

Allis, D.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allis, D. G.

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babikov, D.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baker, C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Barber, J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Burnett, A.

Cady, H.

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[Crossref]

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, S. F.

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cobbledick, R. E.

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cromer, D. T.

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J.

David, W. I. F.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

Demartin, F.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W. H.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Filippini, G.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitch, M. J.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Funk, D. J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Gavezzotti, A.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, D.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gregory, I. S.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1617–1619 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harsha, S S.

Harsha, S. S.

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayden, L. M.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hooks, D. E.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hooper, J. P.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Huang, P.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kemp, M. C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, A. R.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Konek, C. T.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

Korter, T. A.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korter, T. M.

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laman, N.

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, A. C.

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[Crossref]

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[Crossref]

Leahy-Hoppa, M. R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

Lo, T.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Main, P.

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[Crossref]

Mason, B. P.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

McHugh, C. J.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Melinger, J. S.

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moran, J. S.

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Osiander, R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prokhorova, D. A.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rizzato, S.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Shankland, K.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shankland, N.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Small, R. W. H.

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[Crossref]

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. E.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sree Harsha, S.

Stoltz, C. A.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taday, P. F.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tribe, W. R.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Upadhya, P. C.

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

Witko, E. M.

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeitler, J. A.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhao, H.

Zheng, X.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. B (3)

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[Crossref]

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. C (1)

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

ChemPhysChem (1)

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (3)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. Chem. (1)

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[Crossref]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 5070, 44–52 (2003).

K.C. Oppenheim, T.M. Korter, J.S. Melinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “A solid-state density functional theory investigation of the structural isomers 1,2-dicyanobenzene and 1,3-dicyanobenzene” accepted for publication in J. Phys. Chem. A.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the waveguide THz-TDS apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Optical micrograph of 4A-DNT on Au at 20 X magnification. Right: X-ray diffraction spectrum of the 4A-DNT layer on Au. Assignments to crystal planes are shown in parenthesis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectral amplitudes of 4A-DNT on Au for three temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral amplitudes for 4A-DNT measured where the THz line structure changes abruptly with temperature. (a): Spectral changes upon cooling near 178 K. (b): Spectral changes upon warming near 200 K. In both (a) and (b) the spectral amplitudes are offset for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amplitude absorbance spectrum for 4A-DNT on Au at 14 K. The inset shows the lower frequency part of the spectrum on an expanded scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a): Lineshape of the 1.051 THz mode (dots) with non-linear least square fits using a Lorenztian function (red line) or a Gaussian function (blue line). (b): Experimental lineshape of the strong feature at 1.497 THz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: Optical micrograph of PETN on Au at 50 X magnification. Right: X-ray diffraction spectrum of PETN on Au. Assignment to crystal planes is given in parenthesis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Absorbance spectrum of PETN on Au at room temperature. (b) Absorbance spectrum of PETN on Au at 12 K. Inset: The lowest frequency mode of PETN on an expanded scale.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left: Optical micrograph of HMX on A1 at 40 X magnification. Right: X-ray diffraction spectrum of HMX on A1. Assignment to crystal planes is given in parenthesis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temperature dependence of the spectral amplitudes for HMX on Al . Room temperature (magenta), 190 K (cyan), 80 K (blue), 40 K (green), 20 K (red), 13 K (black).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Absorbance spectra for two different samples of HMX at cryogenic temperature. (a) HMX on Al at 13 K. (b) HMX on Cu at 12 K.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 . Line frequencies in THz (and linewidths in GHz) for 4A-DNT, PETN, and HMX.

Metrics