Abstract

Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to characterize the temperature dependent vibrational properties of three threat-related materials: 4-amino-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). These materials are characterized as thin polycrystalline layers deposited in the 50 micron gap of a metal parallel plate waveguide. For each material waveguide THz-TDS at least partially resolves the underlying vibrational spectrum and reveals new features that have not been observed in previous free space measurements of these materials. Strong experimental evidence for a phase transformation is observed for 4A-DNT as the polycrystalline layer on the waveguide surface is cooled to near 200 K. For PETN a highly resolved spectrum containing eleven vibrational lines is observed at 11 K with full-width at half maximum linewidths ranging from 7 GHz to 40 GHz. Based on comparison to measurements in the literature, our PETN measurement suggests that it is possible to produce narrow linewidths from a polycrystalline layer that approach those from a single crystal. Finally, for HMX, a highly resolved vibrational spectrum is measured that is assigned to the metastable gamma polymorph.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Fan, A. Burnett, P. C. Upadhya, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Far-infrared spectroscopic characterization of explosives for security applications using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(6), 638–643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, “Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12060–12067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1617–1619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Allis, D.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allis, D. G.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Babikov, D.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Burnett, A.

Cady, H.

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, S. F.

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobbledick, R. E.

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, D. T.

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

David, W. I. F.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Demartin, F.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W. H.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Filippini, G.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitch, M. J.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Gavezzotti, A.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, D.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, I. S.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1617–1619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harsha, S S.

Harsha, S. S.

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayden, L. M.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hooks, D. E.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, J. P.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, A. R.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Konek, C. T.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korter, T. A.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korter, T. M.

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laman, N.

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, A. C.

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Leahy-Hoppa, M. R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Lo, T.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Main, P.

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mason, B. P.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McHugh, C. J.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melinger, J. S.

J. S. Melinger, S S. Harsha, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “Guided-wave terahertz spectroscopy of molecular solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A79–A89 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, “7 GHz resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of explosives related solids showing new features,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4094–4105 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, J. S.

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorova, D. A.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizzato, S.

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Shankland, K.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shankland, N.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Small, R. W. H.

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. E.

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sree Harsha, S.

Stoltz, C. A.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Witko, E. M.

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhao, H.

Zheng, X.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

H. Cady, A. C. Larson, and D. T. Cromer, “The crystal structure of α-HMX and a refinement of the structure of β-HMX,” Acta Crystallogr. 16(7), 617–623 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. B (3)

R. E. Cobbledick and R. W. H. Small, “The crystal structure of the δ-form of 1,35,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazocyclooctane (δ-HMX),” Acta Crystallogr. B 30(8), 1918–1922 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Demartin, G. Filippini, A. Gavezzotti, and S. Rizzato, “X-ray diffraction and packing analysis on vintage crystals: Wilhelm Koerner’s nitrobenzene derivatives from the School of Agricultural Sciences in Milano,” Acta Crystallogr. B 60(Pt 5), 609–620 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cady and A. C. Larson, “Pentaerythritol tetranitrate II: its crystal structure and transformation to PETN I; an algorithm for refinement of crystal structures with poor data,” Acta Crystallogr. B 31(7), 1864–1869 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. C (1)

P. Main, R. E. Cobbledick, and R. W. H. Small, “Structure of the fourth form of 1,3,5,7-tetra azacyclooctane (γ-GNX),2C4H8N8O8.0.5H2O,” Acta Crystallogr. C 41, 1351-1354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz spectrum of explosive solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, and D. Grischkowsky, “The underlying terahertz vibrational spectrum of explosive solids’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. T. Konek, B. P. Mason, J. P. Hooper, C. A. Stoltz, and J. Wilkinson, “Terahertz absorption spectra of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) polymorphs,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489(1-3), 48–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4-6), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wilkinson, C. T. Konek, J. S. Moran, E. M. Witko, and T. M. Korter, “Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 478(4-6), 172–174 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Allis, J. A. Zeitler, P. F. Taday, and T. A. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the solid-state terahertz spectrum the high explosive RDX,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 463(1-3), 84–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

D. G. Allis and T. M. Korter, “Theoretical analysis of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive PETN,” ChemPhysChem 7(11), 2398–2408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (3)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. F. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(43), 10977–10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(5), 1951–1959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109(15), 3501–3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Chem. (1)

D. Graham, A. R. Kennedy, C. J. McHugh, W. E. Smith, W. I. F. David, K. Shankland, and N. Shankland, “The crystal structures of three primary products from the selective reduction of 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene,” N. J. Chem. 28(1), 161–165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives,” Phys. Lett. A 359(6), 728–732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications: Explosives, weapons, and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S2802005).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Vib. Spectrosc. 42(2), 243–248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 5070, 44–52 (2003).

K.C. Oppenheim, T.M. Korter, J.S. Melinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “A solid-state density functional theory investigation of the structural isomers 1,2-dicyanobenzene and 1,3-dicyanobenzene” accepted for publication in J. Phys. Chem. A.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the waveguide THz-TDS apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Optical micrograph of 4A-DNT on Au at 20 X magnification. Right: X-ray diffraction spectrum of the 4A-DNT layer on Au. Assignments to crystal planes are shown in parenthesis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectral amplitudes of 4A-DNT on Au for three temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral amplitudes for 4A-DNT measured where the THz line structure changes abruptly with temperature. (a): Spectral changes upon cooling near 178 K. (b): Spectral changes upon warming near 200 K. In both (a) and (b) the spectral amplitudes are offset for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amplitude absorbance spectrum for 4A-DNT on Au at 14 K. The inset shows the lower frequency part of the spectrum on an expanded scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a): Lineshape of the 1.051 THz mode (dots) with non-linear least square fits using a Lorenztian function (red line) or a Gaussian function (blue line). (b): Experimental lineshape of the strong feature at 1.497 THz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: Optical micrograph of PETN on Au at 50 X magnification. Right: X-ray diffraction spectrum of PETN on Au. Assignment to crystal planes is given in parenthesis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Absorbance spectrum of PETN on Au at room temperature. (b) Absorbance spectrum of PETN on Au at 12 K. Inset: The lowest frequency mode of PETN on an expanded scale.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left: Optical micrograph of HMX on A1 at 40 X magnification. Right: X-ray diffraction spectrum of HMX on A1. Assignment to crystal planes is given in parenthesis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temperature dependence of the spectral amplitudes for HMX on Al . Room temperature (magenta), 190 K (cyan), 80 K (blue), 40 K (green), 20 K (red), 13 K (black).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Absorbance spectra for two different samples of HMX at cryogenic temperature. (a) HMX on Al at 13 K. (b) HMX on Cu at 12 K.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 . Line frequencies in THz (and linewidths in GHz) for 4A-DNT, PETN, and HMX.

Metrics