Abstract

In this paper we show that an optical setup based on a polarizing Sagnac interferometer combined with a Dove prism can be used as a convenient general-purpose tool for the generation, detection and sorting of spin-orbit states of light. This device can work both in the classical and in the quantum single-photon regime, provides higher sorting efficiency and extinction ratio than usual hologram-fiber combinations, and shows much higher stability and ease of alignment than Mach-Zehnder interferometer setups. To demonstrate the full potential of this setup, we also report some demonstrative experiments of several possible applications of this setup.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Padgett, and J. P. Lesso, "Dove prisms and polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 46, 175-179 (1999).
  2. G. P. I. Moreno, and M. Strojnik, "Polarization transforming properties of dove prisms," Opt. Commun. 220, 257-268 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Moreno, "Jones matrix for image-rotation prisms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3373-3381 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, eds., Optical angular momentum (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nat. Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Sergienko, Quantum Communications and Cryptography (Taylor & Francis Group, 2006).
  9. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, "Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, "Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Vértesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, "Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. This is strictly true for paraxial beams only.
  18. E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, ""Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  24. J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, "Orbital angular momentum exchange in cylindrical-lens mode converters," J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S17-S19 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Suitable waveplates can be introduced to compensate the polarization change introduced by real Dove prism, but this is often unnecessary because the polarization change is very small [1-3].
  30. E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Examples are the diagonal, antidiagonal, left-circular, right-circular polarizations.
  32. M. Frede, R. Wilhelm, M. Brendel, C. Fallnich, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, "High power fundamental mode Nd:YAG laser with efficient birefringence compensation," Opt. Express 12, 3581-3589 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. If the pure OAM eigenstates |ℓ〉are described by Laguerre-Gaussian modes, then the |hℓ〉 and |vℓ〉 states correspond to Hermite-Gaussian modes.
  36. M. Fiorentino, and F. N. Wong, "Deterministic controlled-not gate for single-photon two-qubit quantum logic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 070502 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. L. Hardy, "Non locality for two particles without inequalities for almost all entangled states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665-1668 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge," Opt. Lett. 34, 1225-1227 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. N. González, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "How a dove prism transforms the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Opt. Express 14, 9093-9102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qu-bit," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  41. M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, "Poincaré-sphere equivalent for light beams containing orbital angular momentum," Opt. Lett. 24, 430-432 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

T. Vértesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, "Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge," Opt. Lett. 34, 1225-1227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nat. Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

N. González, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "How a dove prism transforms the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Opt. Express 14, 9093-9102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

M. Frede, R. Wilhelm, M. Brendel, C. Fallnich, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, "High power fundamental mode Nd:YAG laser with efficient birefringence compensation," Opt. Express 12, 3581-3589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, and F. N. Wong, "Deterministic controlled-not gate for single-photon two-qubit quantum logic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 070502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, "Jones matrix for image-rotation prisms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3373-3381 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. P. I. Moreno, and M. Strojnik, "Polarization transforming properties of dove prisms," Opt. Commun. 220, 257-268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, "Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, "Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, "Orbital angular momentum exchange in cylindrical-lens mode converters," J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S17-S19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qu-bit," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

M. J. Padgett, and J. P. Lesso, "Dove prisms and polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 46, 175-179 (1999).

M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, "Poincaré-sphere equivalent for light beams containing orbital angular momentum," Opt. Lett. 24, 430-432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Hardy, "Non locality for two particles without inequalities for almost all entangled states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665-1668 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, ""Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
[PubMed]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, "Orbital angular momentum exchange in cylindrical-lens mode converters," J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S17-S19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, M. P.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, N. F.

N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bagherinezhad, S.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, "Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bahraminasab, A.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, "Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, M.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, ""Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
[PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourennane, M.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, "Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brendel, M.

Brunner, N.

T. Vértesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, "Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, "Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, "Poincaré-sphere equivalent for light beams containing orbital angular momentum," Opt. Lett. 24, 430-432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

Fallnich, C.

Fiorentino, M.

M. Fiorentino, and F. N. Wong, "Deterministic controlled-not gate for single-photon two-qubit quantum logic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 070502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frede, M.

Gibson, G.

Gilchrist, A.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, D.

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

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B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
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E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
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E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
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E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
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E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge," Opt. Lett. 34, 1225-1227 (2009).
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E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
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N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, "Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
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N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
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E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
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E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
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D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qu-bit," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
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B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
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J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
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J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
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M. J. Padgett, and J. P. Lesso, "Dove prisms and polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 46, 175-179 (1999).

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge," Opt. Lett. 34, 1225-1227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Martini, F. D.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
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E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miklaszewski, W.

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
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G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nat. Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007).
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N. González, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "How a dove prism transforms the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Opt. Express 14, 9093-9102 (2006).
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G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
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G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
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G. P. I. Moreno, and M. Strojnik, "Polarization transforming properties of dove prisms," Opt. Commun. 220, 257-268 (2003).
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Moreno, I.

Munro, W. J.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qu-bit," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, E.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
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O’Brien, J. L.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
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S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).
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J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
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G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004).
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J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
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M. J. Padgett, and J. P. Lesso, "Dove prisms and polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 46, 175-179 (1999).

M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, "Poincaré-sphere equivalent for light beams containing orbital angular momentum," Opt. Lett. 24, 430-432 (1999).
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Palashov, O. V.

N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pasko, V.

Piccirillo, B.

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge," Opt. Lett. 34, 1225-1227 (2009).
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T. Vértesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, "Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
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N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, G. J.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rehacek, J.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitze, D. H.

N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K. J.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sansoni, L.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santamato, E.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge," Opt. Lett. 34, 1225-1227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states," Opt. Express 17, 18745-18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, F.

Sergeev, A. M.

N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skeldon, K.

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slussarenko, S.

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
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V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, ""Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
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L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
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G. P. I. Moreno, and M. Strojnik, "Polarization transforming properties of dove prisms," Opt. Commun. 220, 257-268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, D. B.

E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nat. Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nat. Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. González, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "How a dove prism transforms the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Opt. Express 14, 9093-9102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasnetsov, M.

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, ""Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
[PubMed]

Vaziri, A.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vértesi, T.

T. Vértesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, "Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qu-bit," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelm, R.

Willke, B.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, F. N.

M. Fiorentino, and F. N. Wong, "Deterministic controlled-not gate for single-photon two-qubit quantum logic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 070502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, S.

E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zukowski, M.

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. A. Khazanov, O. V. Kulagin, S. Yoshida, D. B. Tanner, and D. H. Reitze, "Investigation of self-induced depolarization of laser radiation in terbium gallium garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1116-1122 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. J. Padgett, and J. P. Lesso, "Dove prisms and polarized light," J. Mod. Opt. 46, 175-179 (1999).

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, "Orbital angular momentum exchange in cylindrical-lens mode converters," J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S17-S19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, ""Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts," JETP Lett. 52, 429-431 (1990).
[PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, "Advances in optical angular momentum," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299-313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through hong-ou-mandel coalescence," Nat. Photonics 3, 720-723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces," Nat. Phys. 5, 134-140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Twisted photons," Nat. Phys. 3, 305-310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. P. I. Moreno, and M. Strojnik, "Polarization transforming properties of dove prisms," Opt. Commun. 220, 257-268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qu-bit," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding," Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, "Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, "Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, "Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, "Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, "Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, "Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4418-4421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vértesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, "Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, "Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, and F. N. Wong, "Deterministic controlled-not gate for single-photon two-qubit quantum logic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 070502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hardy, "Non locality for two particles without inequalities for almost all entangled states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665-1668 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, D. Giovannini, L. Marrucci, S. Slussarenko, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, "Experimental optimal cloning of four-dimensional quantum states of photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, "Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leach, J. Courtial, K. Skeldon, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, "Interferometric methods to measure orbital and spin, or the total angular momentum of a single photon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, "Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

N. F. Andreev, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Potemkin, D. H. Reitze, A. M. Sergeev, and E. A. Khazanov, "A 45-db faraday isolator for 100-w average radiation power," Quantum Electron. 30, 1107-1108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

If the pure OAM eigenstates |ℓ〉are described by Laguerre-Gaussian modes, then the |hℓ〉 and |vℓ〉 states correspond to Hermite-Gaussian modes.

Examples are the diagonal, antidiagonal, left-circular, right-circular polarizations.

Suitable waveplates can be introduced to compensate the polarization change introduced by real Dove prism, but this is often unnecessary because the polarization change is very small [1-3].

This is strictly true for paraxial beams only.

A. V. Sergienko, Quantum Communications and Cryptography (Taylor & Francis Group, 2006).

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, eds., Optical angular momentum (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) the polarizing Sagnac interferometer (PSI) with Dove prism (DP), or PSI-DP. (b) The auxiliary setup used to generate photons with OAM = ±2. Some of the optical components were eventually placed or removed to create the input states for each experimental demonstration. (c) The auxiliary setup used to analyze photons with OAM = ±2. The auxiliary setups in (b) and (c) use a q-plate (QP) to convert the photon spin into OAM and viceversa. Legenda of other symbols: PBS - polarizing beam-splitter; WP - generic waveplate; Q - quarter-wave plate; H - half-wave plate; P - polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Filtering the TEM00 mode from the OAM carrying beam. Squares ( = 2) and dots ( = 0) represent the normalized intensities of the two exits of the final PBS P2 in Fig. 1(c), as functions of the QP optical retardation δ. The solid curves are best fits with sin2δ/2 and cos2δ/2 behavior expected from Eq. (8). The experiment was repeated for = −2 with similar results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sorting of the OAM eigenstates |±2〉. Dots ( = 2) and squares ( = 2) represent normalized intensities of the two exits of the final PBS in Fig. 1(c), as functions of the angle θ of the half-wave plate (HWP), that controls the state of the input beam. The solid line is given by sin2(θ − π/4) and cos2(θ − π/4), according to theory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bell’s state detection. The photons coming from the PSI-DP were first sorted by a PBS into their H and V polarizations and then sorted again by a QPs in each channel so to send the OAM h and v states into orthogonal polarizations and TEM00 mode by inverse STOC. The TEM00 mode was selected by a small aperture located beyond the QP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized intensities, corresponding to the |H,h〉 (dots) and |V,v〉 (squares) component of the state (7) as functions of the angle θ of the HWP. Solid lines correspond to cos2(2θ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Density matrix of the maximally entangled Hardy state, reconstructed by full spin-orbit tomography

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| ψ , PSI ^ α a e 2 i α | H , + b e 2 i α | V , = i cos 2 α | ψ , + sin 2 α | ψ , )
cos 2 ( 2 1 ) α = 0 α = ( 2 k + 1 ) π 4 ( 2 1 )
| ψ out = ia | A , 0 + b | D , c | D , ,
| 0 , 0 CNOT ^ | 0 , 0 ; | 0 , 1 CNOT ^ | 0 , 1 ; | 1 , 0 CNOT ^ | 1 , 1 ; | 1 , 1 CNOT ^ | 1 , 0 .
| L , CNOT + QWP ^ | L , ; | L , CNOT + QWP ^ | R , ; | R , CNOT + QWP ^ | R , ; | R , CNOT + QWP ^ | L ,
| V , ν CNOT ^ | V , d DP ^ | V , ν ; | V , h CNOT ^ | V , a DP ^ | V , h | H , ν CNOT ^ | H , a DP ^ | H , h | H , h CNOT ^ | H , d DP ^ | H , ν ,
| B 1 = ( | H , h + | V , ν ) / 2 ; | B 2 = ( | H , h | V , ν ) / 2 ; | B 3 = ( | H , ν + | V , h ) / 2 ; | B 4 = ( | H , ν | V , h ) / 2
| Ψ S = cos ( θ ) | H , h sin ( θ ) | V , ν
| L , QP ^ cos ( δ / 2 ) | L , i sin ( δ / 2 ) | R , + 2 , | R , QP ^ cos ( δ / 2 ) | R , i sin ( δ / 2 ) | L , 2
α | L , 0 + β | R , 0 1 2 | H ( α | 2 + β | 2 )
α | H , 2 + β | H , 2 1 2 ( α | L , 0 + β | R , 0 ) .

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