Abstract

Europium (Eu)-doped silicon oxide films with Eu concentrations from 2.1 to 4.7 at. % were deposited by electron beam evaporation. The Eu related luminescence from the films was found to be sensitive to the evolution of film microstructures at different annealing temperatures. Luminescence centers in the films changed from defects of silicon oxides to 4f65d-4f7(8S7/2) transition of Eu2+ after the films annealed in N2 at temperature higher than 800 °C. The evolution of luminescence centers was attributed to the formation of europium silicate (EuSiO3), which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, time resolved photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Fauchet, “Light emission from Si quantum dots,” Mater. Today 8(1), 26–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Europium silicate thin films on Si substrates fabricated by a radio frequency sputtering method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(16), 2074–2078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Nogamia and Y. Abe, “Enhanced emission from Eu+2 ions in sol-gel derived Al2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3776–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Rubio, “Doubly-valent rare-earth ions in halide crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 101–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

M. Nogamia and Y. Abe, “Enhanced emission from Eu+2 ions in sol-gel derived Al2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3776–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, L.-J.

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chueh, Y.-L.

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Stefano, G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fallica, P. G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

P. M. Fauchet, “Light emission from Si quantum dots,” Mater. Today 8(1), 26–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gong, D.

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grambole, D.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, L. C.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heng, C.

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanjilal, A.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, Y.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, J.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-J.

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-K.

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mascher, P.

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

J. F. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Europium silicate thin films on Si substrates fabricated by a radio frequency sputtering method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(16), 2074–2078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

J. F. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Europium silicate thin films on Si substrates fabricated by a radio frequency sputtering method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(16), 2074–2078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miritello, M.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, A.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nogamia, M.

M. Nogamia and Y. Abe, “Enhanced emission from Eu+2 ions in sol-gel derived Al2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3776–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Padalia, B. D.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prabhawalkar, P. D.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Prabhawalkar, V.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prucnal, S.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J. F.

J. F. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Europium silicate thin films on Si substrates fabricated by a radio frequency sputtering method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(16), 2074–2078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Que, D.

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rebohle, L.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roschuk, T.

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, J.

J. Rubio, “Doubly-valent rare-earth ions in halide crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 101–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sampathkumaran, E. V.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sanfilippo, D.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skorupa, W.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. M.

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

J. F. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Europium silicate thin films on Si substrates fabricated by a radio frequency sputtering method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(16), 2074–2078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagulskii, I.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagulskii, S.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagulskiib, I.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vijayaraghavan, R.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Voelskow, M.

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, P. R. J.

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, J.

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

You, Z.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zalloum, O.

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zalloum, O. H. Y.

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Li, O. Zalloum, T. Roschuk, C. Heng, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Prucnal, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Switchable two-color electroluminescence based on a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure doped with Eu,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Kanjilal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskiib, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er+3 doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er+3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Nogamia and Y. Abe, “Enhanced emission from Eu+2 ions in sol-gel derived Al2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3776–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mater. Sci.

B. D. Padalia, V. Prabhawalkar, P. D. Prabhawalkar, E. V. Sampathkumaran, L. C. Gupta, and R. Vijayaraghavan, “ESCA studies of some mixed-valence rare-earth intermetallics,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 3(2), 163–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Z. Yuan, D. Li, M. Wang, P. Chen, D. Gong, L. Wang, and D. Yang, “Photoluminescence of Tb3+ doped SiNx films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(8), 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Rebohle, J. Lehmann, S. Prucnal, A. Nazarov, I. Tyagulskii, S. Tyagulskii, A. Kanjilal, M. Voelskow, D. Grambole, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, “Anomalous wear-out phenomena of europium-implanted light emitters based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, C.-J. Lin, C.-K. Lin, L.-J. Chou, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, D. Yang, D. Li, Z. Yuan, and D. Que, “Correlation between luminescence and structural evolution of Si-rich silicon oxide film annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

T. Cao, G. Chen, W. Lu, H. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Zhu, Z. You, Y. Wang, and C. Tu, “Intense red and cyan luminescence in europium doped silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(48-49), 2361–2364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

J. Rubio, “Doubly-valent rare-earth ions in halide crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 101–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

J. F. Qi, T. Matsumoto, M. Tanaka, and Y. Masumoto, “Europium silicate thin films on Si substrates fabricated by a radio frequency sputtering method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33(16), 2074–2078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

P. M. Fauchet, “Light emission from Si quantum dots,” Mater. Today 8(1), 26–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B

T. Roschuk, P. R. J. Wilson, J. Li, O. H. Y. Zalloum, J. Wojcik, and P. Mascher, “Structure and luminescence of rare earth-doped silicon oxides studied through their X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(2), 248–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Barin, O. Knacke, and O. Kubaschewski, Thermochemical Properties of Inorganic Substances, (Berlin: Springer, 1973; Supplement, 1997).

O. Knacke, O. Kubaschewski, and K. Hesselmannd, Thermochemical Properties of Inorganic Substances, 2nd ed. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1991).

G. Liu and B. Jacquier, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths in Optical Materials, (Springer, Berlin, 2005) p. 122.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Luminescence of the Eu:SiOx films with 3.9 at % Eu as a function of (a) the annealing temperature and (b) the annealing duration at 1100 °C. The inset of Fig. 1(a) shows the decay time of Eu-doped SRO films monitored at the emission peaks corresponding to the sample annealed at different temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XPS spectra of the Eu 3d energy level of the Eu-doped SRO samples before and after annealing at 1100 °C for 2 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRD pattern of the Eu-doped SRO films annealed at (a) 400 °C and (b) 1100 °C for 0.5 h.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TEM images and their SAED images of the films annealed at (a) 600 °C, (b) 800 °C, (c) 1000 °C, (d) 1100 °C for 0.5h.

Equations (1)

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E u O ( s ) + S i O 2 ( s ) E u S i O 3 ( s )

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