Abstract

Endoscopic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated as clinically useful in the assessment of human airways. These airways have a complex 3D structure, bending, tapering and bifurcating. Previously published 3D OCT reconstructions have not accounted for changes in the orientation and trajectory of the endoscopic probe as it moves through the airway during imaging. We propose a novel endoscopic setup incorporating a magnetic tracking system that accounts for these changes, yielding reconstructions that reveal the true 3D nature of the imaged anatomy. We characterize the accuracy of the system, and present the first published magnetic tracker-assisted endoscopic OCT reconstructions using a phantom airway.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).
  4. R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
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  18. S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. S. Day, D. J. Murdoch, and G. A. Dumas, “Calibration of position and angular data from a magnetic tracking device,” J. Biomech. 33(8), 1039–1045 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. LaScalza, J. Arico, and R. Hughes, “Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system,” J. Biomech. 36(1), 141–144 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Schneider and C. Stevens, “Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance,” Proc. SPIE 6509, 65090I (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. D. Frantz, A. D. Wiles, S. E. Leis, and S. R. Kirsch, “Accuracy assessment protocols for electromagnetic tracking systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(14), 2241–2251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. LaScalza, J. Arico, and R. Hughes, “Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system,” J. Biomech. 36(1), 141–144 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. S. Day, D. J. Murdoch, and G. A. Dumas, “Calibration of position and angular data from a magnetic tracking device,” J. Biomech. 33(8), 1039–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

1979

F. H. Raab, E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic position and orientation tracking system,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 15(5), 709–718 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, S. A.

Arico, J.

S. LaScalza, J. Arico, and R. Hughes, “Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system,” J. Biomech. 36(1), 141–144 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Baker, V. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Becker, S.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blood, E. B.

F. H. Raab, E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic position and orientation tracking system,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 15(5), 709–718 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Borgert, J.

S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Brenner, M.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colt, H.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Day, J. S.

J. S. Day, D. J. Murdoch, and G. A. Dumas, “Calibration of position and angular data from a magnetic tracking device,” J. Biomech. 33(8), 1039–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietmayer, K.

H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumas, G. A.

J. S. Day, D. J. Murdoch, and G. A. Dumas, “Calibration of position and angular data from a magnetic tracking device,” J. Biomech. 33(8), 1039–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

El-Abbadi, N. H.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feussner, H.

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frantz, D. D.

D. D. Frantz, A. D. Wiles, S. E. Leis, and S. R. Kirsch, “Accuracy assessment protocols for electromagnetic tracking systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(14), 2241–2251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gey van Pittius, D.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grewer, R.

S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hautmann, H.

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, D. R.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Hughes, R.

S. LaScalza, J. Arico, and R. Hughes, “Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system,” J. Biomech. 36(1), 141–144 (2003).
[CrossRef]

James, A. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Jones, H. R.

F. H. Raab, E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic position and orientation tracking system,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 15(5), 709–718 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W. G.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsch, S. R.

D. D. Frantz, A. D. Wiles, S. E. Leis, and S. R. Kirsch, “Accuracy assessment protocols for electromagnetic tracking systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(14), 2241–2251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, S.

H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaScalza, S.

S. LaScalza, J. Arico, and R. Hughes, “Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system,” J. Biomech. 36(1), 141–144 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, M. S.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leis, S. E.

D. D. Frantz, A. D. Wiles, S. E. Leis, and S. R. Kirsch, “Accuracy assessment protocols for electromagnetic tracking systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(14), 2241–2251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maddison, K. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, G. B.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Mayo, J. R.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

McWilliams, A. M.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milliken, J.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mina-Araghi, R.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, H. W.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murdoch, D. J.

J. S. Day, D. J. Murdoch, and G. A. Dumas, “Calibration of position and angular data from a magnetic tracking device,” J. Biomech. 33(8), 1039–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noffsinger, W. J.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Paduch, A.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parmer, J.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peltz, F.

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philippe, D. L.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, M. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinkau, T.

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Quiney, B.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, F. H.

F. H. Raab, E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic position and orientation tracking system,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 15(5), 709–718 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Regli, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Saltzman, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic longrange optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1817–1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Sasse, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, A.

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, M.

M. Schneider and C. Stevens, “Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance,” Proc. SPIE 6509, 65090I (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwer, S.

Sheehan, R. E.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, K. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Sin, D. D.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Spiteri, M. A.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, T. O.

F. H. Raab, E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic position and orientation tracking system,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 15(5), 709–718 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, C.

M. Schneider and C. Stevens, “Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance,” Proc. SPIE 6509, 65090I (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Timinger, H.

S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walton, I. D.

West, A. R.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, S. C.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiles, A. D.

D. D. Frantz, A. D. Wiles, S. E. Leis, and S. R. Kirsch, “Accuracy assessment protocols for electromagnetic tracking systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(14), 2241–2251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, J. P.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, J. P. Williamson, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Applying anatomical optical coherence tomography to quantitative 3D imaging of the lower airway,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17521–17529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Xing, L.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A. V.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157(5), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (published online ahead of print), doi:.
[PubMed]

Chest

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, J. H. Walsh, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Using optical coherence tomography to improve diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy,” Chest 136(1), 272–276 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hautmann, A. Schneider, T. Pinkau, F. Peltz, and H. Feussner, “Electromagnetic catheter navigation during bronchoscopy: validation of a novel method by conventional fluoroscopy,” Chest 128(1), 382–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J.

J. P. Williamson, J. J. Armstrong, R. A. McLaughlin, P. B. Noble, A. R. West, S. Becker, A. Curatolo, W. J. Noffsinger, H. W. Mitchell, M. J. Phillips, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Measuring airway dimensions during bronchoscopy using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Eur. Respir. J. 35(1), 34–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst.

F. H. Raab, E. B. Blood, T. O. Steiner, and H. R. Jones, “Magnetic position and orientation tracking system,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 15(5), 709–718 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(4), 1438–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomech.

J. S. Day, D. J. Murdoch, and G. A. Dumas, “Calibration of position and angular data from a magnetic tracking device,” J. Biomech. 33(8), 1039–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. LaScalza, J. Arico, and R. Hughes, “Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system,” J. Biomech. 36(1), 141–144 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, M. J. Phillips, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, K. J. Maddison, R. E. Sheehan, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Feasibility of applying real-time optical imaging during bronchoscopic interventions for central airway obstruction,” J. Bronch. Interv. Pulm. 17, 307–316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sleep Res.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, “Anatomical optical coherence tomography – a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape,” Photon. Therapeutics Diagnostics IV, Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

Phys. Med. Biol.

D. D. Frantz, A. D. Wiles, S. E. Leis, and S. R. Kirsch, “Accuracy assessment protocols for electromagnetic tracking systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(14), 2241–2251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krueger, H. Timinger, R. Grewer, and J. Borgert, “Modality-integrated magnetic catheter tracking for x-ray vascular interventions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), 581–597 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Timinger, S. Krueger, K. Dietmayer, and J. Borgert, “Motion compensated coronary interventional navigation by means of diaphragm tracking and elastic motion models,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(3), 491–503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

M. Schneider and C. Stevens, “Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance,” Proc. SPIE 6509, 65090I (2007).
[CrossRef]

Respiration

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Respiration 72(5), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Ascension Technology Technical Staff, 3D Guidance medSAFE Installation and Operation Guide (Ascension Technology, 2009).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (3327 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (13193 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of tracker-assisted aOCT probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Airway phantom: (a) photograph with caliper measurements; and (b) tracker-assisted aOCT reconstruction showing true 3D orientation of the lumen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

aOCT reconstructions of the phantom: (a) without; and (b) with tracker assistance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D animation of the tracker-assisted aOCT reconstruction of the phantom. Low resolution (Media 1). High resolution (Media 2)

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RMS error in relative position of magnetic sensor for movement along the transmitter’s x-, y- and z-axes. RMS calculated over a pullback of 25mm, at different transmitter-sensor distances.

Tables Icon

Table 2 RMS error in relative orientation of magnetic sensor (bare sensor, stationary aOCT probe and rotating aOCT probe).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Phantom dimension measurements using calipers and tracker-assisted aOCT.

Metrics