Abstract

Defects are one of the most important factors influencing the optical properties of groups III–V nitride semiconductor materials and thereby their applicability to light-emitting diodes. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the presence of defects in InGaN laser diodes by performing pump-probe measurements and observing the induced absorptions. We have confirmed that the induced absorption originates from defects by performing experiments in which the pump intensity is varied. We believe that our method provides a powerful tool for evaluating the optical quality of InGaN materials before processing them into device fabrications.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air-bridged GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171921 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Potin, P. Ruterana, and G. Nouet, “The atomic structure of {1010} inversion domain boundaries in GaN/sapphire layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2176 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. R. Bennet, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3851 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Sieger, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2566 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonlinear absorption in low‐temperature‐grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2544 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Chen, B. Henderson, and K. P. O’Donnell, “Luminescence decay in disordered low‐dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2672 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. J. Chen, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Nonradiative traps in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells revealed by two wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 142113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. A. Shakhmin, I. V. Sedova, S. V. Sorokin, H.-J. Fitting, and M. V. Zamoryanskaya, “Cathodoluminescence of wide-bandgap II-VI quaternary alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(6c), 1457–1459 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Shakhmin, I. V. Sedova, S. V. Sorokin, H.-J. Fitting, and M. V. Zamoryanskaya, “Cathodoluminescence of wide-bandgap II-VI quaternary alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(6c), 1457–1459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air-bridged GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Chen, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Nonradiative traps in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells revealed by two wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 142113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3851 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Potin, P. Ruterana, and G. Nouet, “The atomic structure of {1010} inversion domain boundaries in GaN/sapphire layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Sieger, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2566 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonlinear absorption in low‐temperature‐grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

X. Chen, B. Henderson, and K. P. O’Donnell, “Luminescence decay in disordered low‐dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

B. R. Bennet, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akaishi, K.

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranowski, J. M.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, S. D.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonlinear absorption in low‐temperature‐grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, B. R.

B. R. Bennet, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. M.

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I. J.

I. J. Chen, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Nonradiative traps in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells revealed by two wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 142113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. T.

I. J. Chen, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Nonradiative traps in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells revealed by two wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 142113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, B. Henderson, and K. P. O’Donnell, “Luminescence decay in disordered low‐dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

I. J. Chen, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Nonradiative traps in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells revealed by two wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 142113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. H.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air-bridged GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Damilano, B.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Del Alamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennet, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Disseix, P.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Dobrzynski, L.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitting, H.-J.

A. A. Shakhmin, I. V. Sedova, S. V. Sorokin, H.-J. Fitting, and M. V. Zamoryanskaya, “Cathodoluminescence of wide-bandgap II-VI quaternary alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(6c), 1457–1459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Sieger, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2566 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, M.

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hautojärvi, P.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, B.

X. Chen, B. Henderson, and K. P. O’Donnell, “Luminescence decay in disordered low‐dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hierro, A.

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y. D.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. K.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapolnek, D.

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, Y.

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B.

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Sieger, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2566 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuisma, S.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kvietkova, J.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Laine, T.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, G. M. Yang, and C. S. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leymarie, J.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

I. J. Chen, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Nonradiative traps in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells revealed by two wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 142113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. F.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air-bridged GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loka, H. S.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonlinear absorption in low‐temperature‐grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, K.

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, D.

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.-

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, J.

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3851 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. H.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nissilä, J.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noh, M. S.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nouet, G.

V. Potin, P. Ruterana, and G. Nouet, “The atomic structure of {1010} inversion domain boundaries in GaN/sapphire layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, K. P.

X. Chen, B. Henderson, and K. P. O’Donnell, “Luminescence decay in disordered low‐dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(21), 2672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Othonos, A.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonlinear absorption in low‐temperature‐grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pakula, K.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Porowski, S.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Potin, V.

V. Potin, P. Ruterana, and G. Nouet, “The atomic structure of {1010} inversion domain boundaries in GaN/sapphire layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ringel, S. A.

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruterana, P.

V. Potin, P. Ruterana, and G. Nouet, “The atomic structure of {1010} inversion domain boundaries in GaN/sapphire layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(5), 2176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, K.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

D. Morita, M. Yamamoto, K. Akaishi, K. Matoba, K. Yasutomo, Y. Kasai, M. Sano, S.- Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Watt-Class High-Output-Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 5945–5950 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sedova, I. V.

A. A. Shakhmin, I. V. Sedova, S. V. Sorokin, H.-J. Fitting, and M. V. Zamoryanskaya, “Cathodoluminescence of wide-bandgap II-VI quaternary alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(6c), 1457–1459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shakhmin, A. A.

A. A. Shakhmin, I. V. Sedova, S. V. Sorokin, H.-J. Fitting, and M. V. Zamoryanskaya, “Cathodoluminescence of wide-bandgap II-VI quaternary alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(6c), 1457–1459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. M.

D. M. Shin, J. Park, D. H. Nguyen, Y. D. Jang, K. J. Yee, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, S. K. Jung, and M. S. Noh, “A critical factor affecting on the performance of blue-violet InGaN multiquantum well laser diodes: Nonradiative centers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sieger, U.

U. Sieger, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(17), 2566 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siozade, L.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonlinear absorption in low‐temperature‐grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennet, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, S. V.

A. A. Shakhmin, I. V. Sedova, S. V. Sorokin, H.-J. Fitting, and M. V. Zamoryanskaya, “Cathodoluminescence of wide-bandgap II-VI quaternary alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(6c), 1457–1459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierro, S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Hydrogen passivation of deep levels in n–GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stepniewski, R.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes with a lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3851 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasson, A.

J. Kvietkova, L. Siozade, P. Disseix, A. Vasson, J. Leymarie, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “Optical Investigations and Absorption Coefficient Determination of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 190(1), 135–140 (2002) (a).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

G. Li, S. J. Chua, S. J. Xu, W. Wang, P. Li, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Nature and elimination of yellow-band luminescence and donor–acceptor emission of undoped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. D.

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air-bridged GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wojdak, M.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. H.

X. H. Wu, L. M. Brown, D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, B. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Defect structure of metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition‐grown epitaxial (0001) GaN/Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wysmolek, A.

K. Saarinen, T. Laine, S. Kuisma, J. Nissilä, P. Hautojärvi, L. Dobrzynski, J. M. Baranowski, K. Pakula, R. Stepniewski, M. Wojdak, A. Wysmolek, T. Suski, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Observation of Native Ga Vacancies in GaN by Positron Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3030–3033 (1997).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission changes as a function of time delay in an InGaN laser diode sample (LD-A), which did not successfully produce lasing operation. Pump excitation density was 1.1 μJ/cm2. The red line indicates a stretched exponential fit to the curve between 4 ps and 1000 ps. The inset shows a schematic of the absorption process of probe photons, which is induced by pump-excited carriers trapped in defect states.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-resolved transmission changes at several pump intensities (up to 11 μJ/cm2). The inset shows the value of the negative maximum for each curve as a function of the pump intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output power vs. applied current curves for several LD devices having different threshold currents. The inset shows the lasing spectrum for LD-D device having a threshold current of 40 mA. (b) Comparison of the time-resolved transmission changes for different LDs measured at a pump intensity of 1.1 μJ/cm2.

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