Abstract

In free space optical communication (FSOC) systems, channel fading caused by atmospheric turbulence degrades the system performance seriously. However, channel coding combined with diversity techniques can be exploited to mitigate channel fading. In this paper, based on the experimental study of the channel fading effects, we propose to use turbo product code (TPC) as the channel coding scheme, which features good resistance to burst errors and no error floor. However, only channel coding cannot cope with burst errors caused by channel fading, interleaving is also used. We investigate the efficiency of interleaving for different interleaving depths, and then the optimum interleaving depth for TPC is also determined. Finally, an experimental study of TPC with interleaving is demonstrated, and we show that TPC with interleaving can significantly mitigate channel fading in FSOC systems.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2009 (2)

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, and S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express 17(2), 872–887 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

M. Uysal, L. Jing, and Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(5), 2–7 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Shi, Z. Xi Min, N. Zhi-Cheng, and N. Ansari, “Interleaving for combating bursts of errors,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 4, 29–42 (2004).

M. Yu, J. Li, and J. C. Ricklin, “Efficient forward error correction coding for free-space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 344–353 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

L. Jing, K. R. Narayanan, E. Kurtas, and C. N. Georghiades, “On the performance of high-rate TPC/SPC codes and LDPC codes over partial response channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(5), 723–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, “Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293–1300 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

H. A. Willebrand and B. S. Ghuman, “Fiber optics without fiber,” IEEE Spectr. 38(8), 40–45 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. C. Tozer and D. Grace, “High-altitude platforms for wireless communications,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J. 13(3), 127–137 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. M. Pyndiah, “Near-optimum decoding of product codes: block turbo codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 46(8), 1003–1010 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. J. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of low density parity check codes,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 457–458 (1997).
[Crossref]

Al-Habash, M. A.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Anguita, J.

Ansari, N.

Y. Q. Shi, Z. Xi Min, N. Zhi-Cheng, and N. Ansari, “Interleaving for combating bursts of errors,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 4, 29–42 (2004).

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(5), 2–7 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bourennane, S.

Caussé, P.

Djordjevic, I.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Dwivedi, A.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Farid, A. A.

Georghiades, C. N.

L. Jing, K. R. Narayanan, E. Kurtas, and C. N. Georghiades, “On the performance of high-rate TPC/SPC codes and LDPC codes over partial response channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(5), 723–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ghuman, B. S.

H. A. Willebrand and B. S. Ghuman, “Fiber optics without fiber,” IEEE Spectr. 38(8), 40–45 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grace, D.

T. C. Tozer and D. Grace, “High-altitude platforms for wireless communications,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J. 13(3), 127–137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Greco, J. A.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Hammons, A. R.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Henion, S. R.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Horwath, J.

J. Horwath, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and F. Moll, “Experimental verification of optical backhaul links for high-altitude platform networks: Atmospheric turbulence and downlink availability,” Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. 25(5), 501–528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hranilovic, S.

Jing, L.

M. Uysal, L. Jing, and Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, K. R. Narayanan, E. Kurtas, and C. N. Georghiades, “On the performance of high-rate TPC/SPC codes and LDPC codes over partial response channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(5), 723–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jones, S. D.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Juarez, J. C.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, “Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293–1300 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katz, M.

Kedar, D.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(5), 2–7 (2004).
[Crossref]

Khalighi, A.

Knapek, M.

J. Horwath, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and F. Moll, “Experimental verification of optical backhaul links for high-altitude platform networks: Atmospheric turbulence and downlink availability,” Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. 25(5), 501–528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurtas, E.

L. Jing, K. R. Narayanan, E. Kurtas, and C. N. Georghiades, “On the performance of high-rate TPC/SPC codes and LDPC codes over partial response channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(5), 723–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

M. Yu, J. Li, and J. C. Ricklin, “Efficient forward error correction coding for free-space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 344–353 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

MacKay, D. J. C.

D. J. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of low density parity check codes,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 457–458 (1997).
[Crossref]

Magliocco, R. J.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Meng, Y.

M. Uysal, L. Jing, and Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Michael, S.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Mitchell, G.

Moll, F.

J. Horwath, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and F. Moll, “Experimental verification of optical backhaul links for high-altitude platform networks: Atmospheric turbulence and downlink availability,” Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. 25(5), 501–528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moores, J. D.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Narayanan, K. R.

L. Jing, K. R. Narayanan, E. Kurtas, and C. N. Georghiades, “On the performance of high-rate TPC/SPC codes and LDPC codes over partial response channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(5), 723–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

Neal, R. M.

D. J. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of low density parity check codes,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 457–458 (1997).
[Crossref]

Neifeld, M.

Neifeld, M. A.

Nichols, R. A.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

O'Brien, D.

Perlot, N.

J. Horwath, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and F. Moll, “Experimental verification of optical backhaul links for high-altitude platform networks: Atmospheric turbulence and downlink availability,” Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. 25(5), 501–528 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pyndiah, R. M.

R. M. Pyndiah, “Near-optimum decoding of product codes: block turbo codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 46(8), 1003–1010 (1998).
[Crossref]

Qiao, C.

Ricklin, J. C.

M. Yu, J. Li, and J. C. Ricklin, “Efficient forward error correction coding for free-space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 344–353 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Shi, Z. Xi Min, N. Zhi-Cheng, and N. Ansari, “Interleaving for combating bursts of errors,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 4, 29–42 (2004).

Stanton, S.

Tozer, T. C.

T. C. Tozer and D. Grace, “High-altitude platforms for wireless communications,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J. 13(3), 127–137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Uysal, M.

M. Uysal, L. Jing, and Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vasic, B.

Volpicelli, A. M.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Walther, F. G.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Weerackody, V.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wilcox, J. W. E.

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

Willebrand, H. A.

H. A. Willebrand and B. S. Ghuman, “Fiber optics without fiber,” IEEE Spectr. 38(8), 40–45 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xi Min, Z.

Y. Q. Shi, Z. Xi Min, N. Zhi-Cheng, and N. Ansari, “Interleaving for combating bursts of errors,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 4, 29–42 (2004).

Xu, F.

Yu, M.

M. Yu, J. Li, and J. C. Ricklin, “Efficient forward error correction coding for free-space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 344–353 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhi-Cheng, N.

Y. Q. Shi, Z. Xi Min, N. Zhi-Cheng, and N. Ansari, “Interleaving for combating bursts of errors,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 4, 29–42 (2004).

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, “Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293–1300 (2002).
[Crossref]

Electron. Commun. Eng. J. (1)

T. C. Tozer and D. Grace, “High-altitude platforms for wireless communications,” Electron. Commun. Eng. J. 13(3), 127–137 (2001).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. J. C. MacKay and R. M. Neal, “Near Shannon limit performance of low density parity check codes,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 457–458 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42(5), 2–7 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free-Space Optical Communications for Next-generation Military Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(11), 46–51 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Spectr. (1)

H. A. Willebrand and B. S. Ghuman, “Fiber optics without fiber,” IEEE Spectr. 38(8), 40–45 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. (1)

Y. Q. Shi, Z. Xi Min, N. Zhi-Cheng, and N. Ansari, “Interleaving for combating bursts of errors,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. 4, 29–42 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

R. M. Pyndiah, “Near-optimum decoding of product codes: block turbo codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 46(8), 1003–1010 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, K. R. Narayanan, E. Kurtas, and C. N. Georghiades, “On the performance of high-rate TPC/SPC codes and LDPC codes over partial response channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(5), 723–734 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, “Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293–1300 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. (1)

M. Uysal, L. Jing, and Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wirel. Comm. 5(6), 1229–1233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Horwath, N. Perlot, M. Knapek, and F. Moll, “Experimental verification of optical backhaul links for high-altitude platform networks: Atmospheric turbulence and downlink availability,” Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. 25(5), 501–528 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. D. Moores, F. G. Walther, J. A. Greco, S. Michael, J. W. E. Wilcox, A. M. Volpicelli, R. J. Magliocco, and S. R. Henion, “Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment,” Proc. SPIE 7464(04), 1–9 (2009).

M. Yu, J. Li, and J. C. Ricklin, “Efficient forward error correction coding for free-space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 344–353 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

R. J. McEliece, Theory of Information and Coding, Second Edition (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002).

L. Jing, and M. Uysal, “Achievable information rate for outdoor free space optical communication with intensity modulation and direct detection,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, San Francisco, 5, 2654–2658 (2003).

D. Williams, “Turbo Product Code Tutorial,” http://www.ieee802.org/16/tutorial/80216t-00_01.pdf .

R. Miller, “New Forward Error Correction and Modulation Technologies,” http://www.comtechefdata.com/articles_papers/LDPC and 8-QAM.pdf.

S. B. Wicker, Error Control System for Digital Communication and Storage, (Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995).

L. C. Andrews, and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, Second Edition (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, 2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation curves and experiment data of the distribution of irradiance fluctuation for different scintillation index (SI).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Encoding and decoding scheme of TPC. (a) Construction of TPC, (b) block diagram of elementary TPC decoder (row or column).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Performance comparison of the three coding schemes, SI = 0.1, τ c = 3 m s , CSI assisted.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Concept of channel fading and the structure of block interleaver.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The relation between interleaving gain and IDFR using block interleaver, τ c = 3 m s .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Outdoor experiment setup.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results of TPC performance. SI = 0.1, IDFR = 7, CSI assisted.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental results of TPC performance. SI = 0.25, IDFR = 7, CSI assisted.

Equations (9)

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σ I 2 = < I 2 > < I > 2 1 ,
p ( I ) = 1 I 2 π σ I 2 exp { [ ln ( I / I 0 ) + 1 2 σ I 2 ] 2 2 σ I 2 } ,
l 0 < λ L < L 0 ,
d 0 λ L ,
τ c = d 0 V .
R ( m ) = R + a ( m ) W ( m ) ,
L L R = 2 I ^ r s I ^ 2 2 σ 0 2 ,
I D F R = N i n t burst errors = M × N R b i t τ c ,
M t h = R b i t τ c t ,

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