Abstract

Spectral properties of an electrically tunable one-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated with a twisted-nematic liquid crystal (PC/TN) are investigated. Two mesogenic materials with dissimilar optical anisotropies are examined for constituting the central defect layer. With the TN alignment of the defect layer embedded in the dielectric multilayers, the defect modes not only shift with the applied voltage but also switch between two major modes when the linear polarization angle of the incident light is altered. The superposition of the mixed-mode TN (MTN) and the photonic bandgap brings out a tremendous undulation in all range of the transmission spectrum. The defect modes falling at the centers of the MTN spectral humps are allowed to intensely transmit while the others are suppressed. As a result, we propose a monochromatic selector constructed by such a PC/MTN device with electrical tunability.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).
  4. F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z.-F. Sang and Z.-Y. Li, “Properties of defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a graded defect layer,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 162–166 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, and W. Lee, “Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1283–1288 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal with in-plane switchable nematic liquid crystal defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(11B), L1477–L1479 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted-nematic cell for transmissive liquid crystal display,” Displays 20(5), 231–236 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤ 90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2008

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Z.-F. Sang and Z.-Y. Li, “Properties of defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a graded defect layer,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 162–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal with in-plane switchable nematic liquid crystal defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(11B), L1477–L1479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted-nematic cell for transmissive liquid crystal display,” Displays 20(5), 231–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤ 90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Arkhipkin, V. G.

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, and W. Lee, “Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1283–1288 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤ 90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gunyakov, V. A.

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, and W. Lee, “Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1283–1288 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

Li, Z.-Y.

Z.-F. Sang and Z.-Y. Li, “Properties of defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a graded defect layer,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 162–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-Q.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, S. A.

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, and W. Lee, “Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1283–1288 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal with in-plane switchable nematic liquid crystal defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(11B), L1477–L1479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal with in-plane switchable nematic liquid crystal defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(11B), L1477–L1479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parshin, A. M.

Sang, Z.-F.

Z.-F. Sang and Z.-Y. Li, “Properties of defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a graded defect layer,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 162–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shabanov, V. F.

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, and W. Lee, “Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1283–1288 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤ 90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted-nematic cell for transmissive liquid crystal display,” Displays 20(5), 231–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted-nematic cell for transmissive liquid crystal display,” Displays 20(5), 231–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal with in-plane switchable nematic liquid crystal defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(11B), L1477–L1479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zyryanov, V. Y.

V. Y. Zyryanov, S. A. Myslivets, V. A. Gunyakov, A. M. Parshin, V. G. Arkhipkin, V. F. Shabanov, and W. Lee, “Magnetic-field tunable defect modes in a photonic-crystal/liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1283–1288 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Displays

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Mixed-mode twisted-nematic cell for transmissive liquid crystal display,” Displays 20(5), 231–236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤ 90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electro-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional periodic structure containing nematic liquid crystal as a defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1482–L1484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal with in-plane switchable nematic liquid crystal defect layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(11B), L1477–L1479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

V. Y. Zyryanov, V. A. Gunyakov, S. A. Myslivets, V. G. Arkhipkin, and V. F. Shabanov, “Electrooptical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 488, 118–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Z.-F. Sang and Z.-Y. Li, “Properties of defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a graded defect layer,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 162–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental schema. The analyzer is removed in the SP scheme. Both the transparent electrode and alignment layer sandwiching a multilayer are not shown in the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The blueshift of the defect modes with applied voltage in the SP scheme. For clarity, only one of the defect modes is illustrated for each condition. All of the polarization states of the emerging light are detected without the use of an analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of a normally-white TN cell between two crossed polarizers. The two lines label the Mauguin parameters of two cells containing different nematic LCs at null voltage. Used in the calculation are d = 7.3 μm, λ = 0.55 μm, Δn = 0.225 for E7, and Δn = 0.12 for CYLC43.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance of the PC/TN in the photonic bandgap with three different modes of the polarization angle. The M-mode with β = π/4 is shown with the thick solid line whereas the E-mode and O-mode are represented by the thin solid line and dashed line, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Overlap of the PC/TN spectra acquired in the single-polarizer (SP) setup and crossed-polarizers (CP) scheme. The spectra are almost identical due to the adiabatic following in the PC/TN cell. The apparent baseline offset beyond the bandgap originates from the experimental artifact, which does not exist in the simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra of M-mode PC/TN in the CP setup at various applied voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation results of the influence of the photonic bandgap and the MTN. The Mauguin parameters of (a) u = 8.74 and (b) u = 9.86 are used to present two particular conditions.

Equations (1)

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u = 2 d Δ n λ ,

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