Abstract

We report on the near- and far-field investigation of the slow Bloch modes associated with the Γ point of the Brillouin zone, for a honeycomb lattice photonic crystal, using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and infra-red CCD camera. The array of doughnut-shaped monopolar mode (mode M) inside each unit cell, predicted previously by numerical simulation, is experimentally observed in the near-field by means of a metal-coated NSOM tip. In far-field, we detect the azimuthal polarization of the doughnut laser beam due to destructive and constructive interference of the mode radiating from the surface (mode TEM01*). A divergence of 2° for the laser beam and a mode size of (12.8 ± 1) µm for the slow Bloch mode at the surface of the crystal are also estimated.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, T. Benyattou, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “3D light harnessing based on coupling engineering between 1D-2D Photonic Crystal membranes and metallic nano-antenna,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A381–A394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mivelle, I. A. Ibrahim, F. Baida, G. W. Burr, D. Nedeljkovic, D. Charraut, J.-Y. Rauch, R. Salut, and T. Grosjean, “Bowtie nano-aperture as interface between near-fields and a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15964–15974 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

F. Bordas, M. J. Steel, C. Seassal, and A. Rahmani, “Confinement of band-edge modes in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10890–10902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai and S. Noda, “Optical trapping of metal particles in doughnut-shaped beam emitted by photonic-crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, and S. Jackel, “Transforming the (0,1)* LG mode with radial polarization to a nearly Gaussian beam by use of a spiral phase element and spatial filter,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461W (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 64–66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S.-H. Kwon and Y.-H. Lee, “High Index-Contrast 2D Photonic Band-Edge Laser,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 87, 308 (2004).

2003

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gérard and B. Gayral, “Strong Purcell effect for InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2089–2095 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J. P.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aspar, B.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Baida, F.

Bakir, B. B.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

Belarouci, A.

Benyattou, T.

Bordas, F.

Boutami, S.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

Callard, S.

G. Le Gac, A. Rahmani, C. Seassal, E. Picard, E. Hadji, and S. Callard, “Tuning of an active photonic crystal cavity by an hybrid silica/silicon near-field probe,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21672–21679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassagne, D.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charraut, D.

Cojocaru, C.

de Fornel, F.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deckert, V.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deloeil, D.

Di Cioccio, L.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

Drouard, E.

Ecoffet, C.

Fedeli, J. M.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

Ferrier, L.

Fokas, C.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gayral, B.

Gendry, M.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, D.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gérard, J.-M.

Grosjean, T.

Hadji, E.

Hecht, B.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, I. A.

Jackel, S.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, and S. Jackel, “Transforming the (0,1)* LG mode with radial polarization to a nearly Gaussian beam by use of a spiral phase element and spatial filter,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalaguier, E.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kunishi, W.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

S.-H. Kwon and Y.-H. Lee, “High Index-Contrast 2D Photonic Band-Edge Laser,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 87, 308 (2004).

Le Gac, G.

Le Vassor d'Yerville, M.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, J. L.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-H. Kwon and Y.-H. Lee, “High Index-Contrast 2D Photonic Band-Edge Laser,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 87, 308 (2004).

Letartre, Ch. X.

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

Letartre, X.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, T. Benyattou, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “3D light harnessing based on coupling engineering between 1D-2D Photonic Crystal membranes and metallic nano-antenna,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A381–A394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 64–66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letatre, X.

Levenson, A.

Lougnot, D. J.

Louvion, N.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lumer, Y.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, and S. Jackel, “Transforming the (0,1)* LG mode with radial polarization to a nearly Gaussian beam by use of a spiral phase element and spatial filter,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Machavariani, G.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, and S. Jackel, “Transforming the (0,1)* LG mode with radial polarization to a nearly Gaussian beam by use of a spiral phase element and spatial filter,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mivelle, M.

Miyai, E.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, P.

Moshe, I.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, and S. Jackel, “Transforming the (0,1)* LG mode with radial polarization to a nearly Gaussian beam by use of a spiral phase element and spatial filter,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mouette, J.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, D.

Noda, S.

K. Sakai and S. Noda, “Optical trapping of metal particles in doughnut-shaped beam emitted by photonic-crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, D.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okano, T.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Picard, E.

Pocas, S.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rahmani, A.

Raineri, F.

Raj, R.

Rauch, J.-Y.

Regreny, P.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rojo Romeo, P.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Romeo, P. R

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, P. R.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

Sakaguchi, T.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

K. Sakai and S. Noda, “Optical trapping of metal particles in doughnut-shaped beam emitted by photonic-crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salut, R.

Seassal, C.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Le Gac, A. Rahmani, C. Seassal, E. Picard, E. Hadji, and S. Callard, “Tuning of an active photonic crystal cavity by an hybrid silica/silicon near-field probe,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21672–21679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bordas, M. J. Steel, C. Seassal, and A. Rahmani, “Confinement of band-edge modes in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10890–10902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 64–66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sick, B.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Stöckle, R.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

A. Belarouci, T. Benyattou, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “3D light harnessing based on coupling engineering between 1D-2D Photonic Crystal membranes and metallic nano-antenna,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A381–A394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Ferrier, P. Rojo-Romeo, E. Drouard, X. Letatre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Slow Bloch mode confinement in 2D photonic crystals for surface operating devices,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3136–3145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 64–66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, J. Mouette, J. L. Leclercq, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1691–1699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wild, U. P.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zussy, M.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, “High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Bakir, Ch. X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 8 (2006).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensionnal photonic crystal on silicon: InP-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. Sakai and S. Noda, “Optical trapping of metal particles in doughnut-shaped beam emitted by photonic-crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.

K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(7), 1335–1340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

S.-H. Kwon and Y.-H. Lee, “High Index-Contrast 2D Photonic Band-Edge Laser,” IEICE Trans. Electron. 87, 308 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. R Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “Two-dimensional hexagonal-shaped microcavities formed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on an InP membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Photon. Rev.

P. Viktorovitch, B. B. Bakir, S. Boutami, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. R. Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, “3-D harnessing of light with 2.5 D photonic Crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 401–413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113907 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, and S. Jackel, “Transforming the (0,1)* LG mode with radial polarization to a nearly Gaussian beam by use of a spiral phase element and spatial filter,” Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001).

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: molding the flow of the light, (Princeton University Press, 2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

3D-FDTD simulation of the monopolar mode at the surface of a 2D-PC slab honeycomb structure. a) Overview of the PC structure. b) Normalized field intensity (Ex2 + Ey2) at the surface of the PC at 1602 nm. c) Zoom over the central part of the PC showing intensity map with the air holes in black, d) Electric field pattern illustrating the azimuthally polarized field in each unit cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental set-up: near-field and far-field analysis are implemented.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field and near-field spectra of honeycomb lattice normalized to the maximum intensity. Mode M at λSBM = 1611 nm matching well in two types of measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the mode at the surface of the PC in the far-field zone (the image is collected through a microscope objective with an NA of 0.75). a) Image of the mode without polarizer, b)-e) images with a polarizer oriented respectively at 0°, 60°, 90°, and 120°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Topography in shear-force mode b) Near-field distribution of intensity of mode-M recorded with a bare silica tip at 1611 nm, the scaling bar is 5 µm, c) CCD image in the visible range of the excitation spot (780 nm) on the structure, the width of the gaussian beam is about 9.5 µm, d) Mode section recorded along the line P1 (corresponding to ΓK direction in the reciprocal space)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Topography in shear-force mode with metallized tip N°1 b) Near-field distribution of intensity of mode-M recorded with tip N°1 at 1611 nm, the scaling bar is 5 µm, c) Topography with tip N°2, d) Near-field distribution of intensity of mode-M recorded with tip N°2 at 1611 nm, the scaling bar is 5 µm

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detail of the M-mode, a) Topographic image b) Optical near-field image at 1611 nm (2.5µm x 2.5µm), circles indicate holes positions of the 2D-PC. In one unit cell, the outer radius of the doughnut is 310 nm and the inner radius 70 nm (λ/10).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Near-field intensity distribution of mode-M collected with tip N°2 at 1611 nm b) Mode section recorded along the direction of the white arrows of a), .

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