Abstract

Voltage controlled photoluminescence (PL) blinking behavior in CdSe nano-particles (NPs) is studied. The NPs are sandwiched between a p-type silicon substrate and a thin Au electrode, which serve respectively as source and drain electrodes. The blinking PL from the NPs can be controlled by the bias voltage across the two electrodes. However, luminescence diminishes when photo excitation power is weak or bias is lower than a threshold voltage. The observed PL blinking is explained by a circuit model, which involves charge tunneling, Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) emission, and charging effect. The blinking intensity is controlled by the number of F-N emitted electrons whereas the pulse interval is associated with the time required for hole accumulation in the NPs. The intensity of luminescence blinking for NP clusters is found to be much higher compared to that of blinking from isolated NPs. This is explained by a collective recombination of F-N emitted electrons and accumulated holes in the NP clusters. This study provides a simple way of controlling PL blinking.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
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  7. E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. R. Koenig, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Ultrasonically driven nanomechanical single-electron shuttle,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 482–485 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jin, N. Song, and T. Lian, “Suppressed blinking dynamics of single QDs on ITO,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1545–1552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Kilina, D. S. Kilin, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Breaking the Phonon Bottleneck in PbSe and CdSe Quantum Dots: Time- Domain Density Functional Theory of Charge Carrier Relaxation,” ACS Nano 3(1), 93–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Koenig, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Ultrasonically driven nanomechanical single-electron shuttle,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 482–485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, G. Smith, N. F. Scherer, and R. A. Marcus, “Evidence for a diffusion-controlled mechanism for fluorescence blinking of colloidal quantum dots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14249–14254 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Robel, V. Subramanian, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. harvesting light energy with CdSe nanocrystals molecularly linked to mesoscopic TiO2 films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(7), 2385–2393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. J. Milliron, I. Gur, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Organic–Nanocrystal Solar Cells,” MRS Bull. 30, 41–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, “Labelling of cells with quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 16(2), R9–R25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Frantsuzov and R. A. Marcusm, “Explanation of quantum dot blinking without the long-lived trap hypothesis,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Cherniavskaya, L. Chen, and L. Brus, “Imaging the photoionization of individual CdSe/CdS core-shell nanocrystals on n- and p-type silicon substrates with thin oxides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(16), 4946–4961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Messin, J. P. Hermier, E. Giacobino, P. Desbiolles, and M. Dahan, “Bunching and antibunching in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1891–1893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4883–4886 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adamec, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

D. J. Milliron, I. Gur, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Organic–Nanocrystal Solar Cells,” MRS Bull. 30, 41–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, P.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aydil, E. S.

B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banin, U.

R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, M. D.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H. A.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bell, L. D.

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berciaud, S.

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bol, A. A.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breeze, A. J.

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brokmann, X.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L.

O. Cherniavskaya, L. Chen, and L. Brus, “Imaging the photoionization of individual CdSe/CdS core-shell nanocrystals on n- and p-type silicon substrates with thin oxides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(16), 4946–4961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burda, C.

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, B.

B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carreras, J.

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. A.

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

O. Cherniavskaya, L. Chen, and L. Brus, “Imaging the photoionization of individual CdSe/CdS core-shell nanocrystals on n- and p-type silicon substrates with thin oxides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(16), 4946–4961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherniavskaya, O.

O. Cherniavskaya, L. Chen, and L. Brus, “Imaging the photoionization of individual CdSe/CdS core-shell nanocrystals on n- and p-type silicon substrates with thin oxides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(16), 4946–4961 (2004).
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Cohen, G.

R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
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R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Messin, J. P. Hermier, E. Giacobino, P. Desbiolles, and M. Dahan, “Bunching and antibunching in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1891–1893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Mello Donega, C.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Desbiolles, P.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Messin, J. P. Hermier, E. Giacobino, P. Desbiolles, and M. Dahan, “Bunching and antibunching in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1891–1893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Early, K. T.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Empedocles, S. A.

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Emrick, T.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, T.

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frantsuzov, P. A.

P. A. Frantsuzov and R. A. Marcusm, “Explanation of quantum dot blinking without the long-lived trap hypothesis,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frederix, P. L. T. M.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fucíková, A.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerion, D.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. C.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Messin, J. P. Hermier, E. Giacobino, P. Desbiolles, and M. Dahan, “Bunching and antibunching in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1891–1893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, D. E.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gur, I.

D. J. Milliron, I. Gur, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Organic–Nanocrystal Solar Cells,” MRS Bull. 30, 41–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halpert, J. E.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, N. I.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heine, J. R.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermier, J. P.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Messin, J. P. Hermier, E. Giacobino, P. Desbiolles, and M. Dahan, “Bunching and antibunching in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1891–1893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hof, M.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Humpolícková, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hun, M.

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huynh, W. U.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarosz, M. V.

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jasieniak, J.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, K. F.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, K.-S.

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

S. Jin, N. Song, and T. Lian, “Suppressed blinking dynamics of single QDs on ITO,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1545–1552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagan, C. R.

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kamat, P. V.

I. Robel, V. Subramanian, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. harvesting light energy with CdSe nanocrystals molecularly linked to mesoscopic TiO2 films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(7), 2385–2393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastner, M. A.

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kilin, D. S.

S. V. Kilina, D. S. Kilin, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Breaking the Phonon Bottleneck in PbSe and CdSe Quantum Dots: Time- Domain Density Functional Theory of Charge Carrier Relaxation,” ACS Nano 3(1), 93–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilina, S. V.

S. V. Kilina, D. S. Kilin, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Breaking the Phonon Bottleneck in PbSe and CdSe Quantum Dots: Time- Domain Density Functional Theory of Charge Carrier Relaxation,” ACS Nano 3(1), 93–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Koenig, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Ultrasonically driven nanomechanical single-electron shuttle,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 482–485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotthaus, J. P.

D. R. Koenig, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Ultrasonically driven nanomechanical single-electron shuttle,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 482–485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuno, M.

I. Robel, V. Subramanian, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. harvesting light energy with CdSe nanocrystals molecularly linked to mesoscopic TiO2 films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(7), 2385–2393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusová, K.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leatherdale, C. A.

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leschkies, K.

B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lian, T.

S. Jin, N. Song, and T. Lian, “Suppressed blinking dynamics of single QDs on ITO,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1545–1552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lounis, B.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, R. A.

M. Pelton, G. Smith, N. F. Scherer, and R. A. Marcus, “Evidence for a diffusion-controlled mechanism for fluorescence blinking of colloidal quantum dots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14249–14254 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcusm, R. A.

P. A. Frantsuzov and R. A. Marcusm, “Explanation of quantum dot blinking without the long-lived trap hypothesis,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masumoto, Y.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4883–4886 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattoussi, H.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, K. D.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Messin, G.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Messin, J. P. Hermier, E. Giacobino, P. Desbiolles, and M. Dahan, “Bunching and antibunching in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1891–1893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikulec, F. V.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milliron, D. J.

D. J. Milliron, I. Gur, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Organic–Nanocrystal Solar Cells,” MRS Bull. 30, 41–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, N. Y.

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuhauser, R. G.

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikoobakht, B.

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishi, K.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4883–4886 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuckolls, C.

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ober, R.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Odoi, M. Y.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-D.

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, J. D.

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parak, W. J.

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, “Labelling of cells with quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 16(2), R9–R25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelant, I.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, T.

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, “Labelling of cells with quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 16(2), R9–R25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, G. Smith, N. F. Scherer, and R. A. Marcus, “Evidence for a diffusion-controlled mechanism for fluorescence blinking of colloidal quantum dots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14249–14254 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plank, C.

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, “Labelling of cells with quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 16(2), R9–R25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prezhdo, O. V.

S. V. Kilina, D. S. Kilin, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Breaking the Phonon Bottleneck in PbSe and CdSe Quantum Dots: Time- Domain Density Functional Theory of Charge Carrier Relaxation,” ACS Nano 3(1), 93–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabani, E.

R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H. W.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4883–4886 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robel, I.

I. Robel, V. Subramanian, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. harvesting light energy with CdSe nanocrystals molecularly linked to mesoscopic TiO2 films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(7), 2385–2393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubner, M. A.

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sahoo, Y.

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salant, A.

R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, N. F.

M. Pelton, G. Smith, N. F. Scherer, and R. A. Marcus, “Evidence for a diffusion-controlled mechanism for fluorescence blinking of colloidal quantum dots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14249–14254 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K. T.

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

M. Pelton, G. Smith, N. F. Scherer, and R. A. Marcus, “Evidence for a diffusion-controlled mechanism for fluorescence blinking of colloidal quantum dots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14249–14254 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, T. A.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, N.

S. Jin, N. Song, and T. Lian, “Suppressed blinking dynamics of single QDs on ITO,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1545–1552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, V.

I. Robel, V. Subramanian, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. harvesting light energy with CdSe nanocrystals molecularly linked to mesoscopic TiO2 films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(7), 2385–2393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugisaki, M.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4883–4886 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, Y. D.

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tangirala, R.

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vácha, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van den Heuvel, D. J.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Embden, J.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Lingen, N. J.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weig, E. M.

D. R. Koenig, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Ultrasonically driven nanomechanical single-electron shuttle,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 482–485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, W. K.

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wood, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, M.

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, H.

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.-Y.

B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (3)

S. V. Kilina, D. S. Kilin, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Breaking the Phonon Bottleneck in PbSe and CdSe Quantum Dots: Time- Domain Density Functional Theory of Charge Carrier Relaxation,” ACS Nano 3(1), 93–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, and L. E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from IndividualSemiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2964–2968 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jin, N. Song, and T. Lian, “Suppressed blinking dynamics of single QDs on ITO,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1545–1552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-Emission Performance of Silicon Nanocrystals Deduced from Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. K. Woo, K. T. Shimizu, M. V. Jarosz, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, M. A. Rubner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Bawendi, “Reseversible charging of CdSe nanocrystals in a simple solid-state device,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1068–1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Huang, A. Dorn, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Electrically driven light emission from single colloidal quantum dots at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Anderson, A. J. Breeze, J. D. Olson, L. Yang, Y. Sahoo, and S. A. Carter, “All-inorganic spin-cast nanoparticle solar cells with nonselective electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329(5-6), 399–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, A. A. Bol, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Blueing, Bleaching, and Blinking of Single CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots,” ChemPhysChem 3(10), 871–879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. J. Walters, J. Carreras, T. Feng, L. D. Bell, and H. A. Atwater, “Silicon Nanocrystal Field-Effect Light-Emitting Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1647–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

I. Robel, V. Subramanian, M. Kuno, and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. harvesting light energy with CdSe nanocrystals molecularly linked to mesoscopic TiO2 films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(7), 2385–2393 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, P. L. T. M. Frederix, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. A. Bol, N. J. van Lingen, C. de Mello Donega, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. Meijerink, “Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study on the Photophysical Behavior of Quantum Dots,” J. Fluoresc. 12(1), 69–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, “(CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Cherniavskaya, L. Chen, and L. Brus, “Imaging the photoionization of individual CdSe/CdS core-shell nanocrystals on n- and p-type silicon substrates with thin oxides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(16), 4946–4961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

B. Carlson, K. Leschkies, E. S. Aydil, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Valence Band Alignment at Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dot and Zinc Oxide (101-10) Interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(22), 8419–8423 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

D. J. Milliron, I. Gur, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid Organic–Nanocrystal Solar Cells,” MRS Bull. 30, 41–44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” N. J. Phys. 6(99), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. Costi, G. Cohen, A. Salant, E. Rabani, and U. Banin, “Electrostatic force microscopy study of single Au-CdSe hybrid nanodumbbells: evidence for light-induced charge separation,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2031–2039 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology 18(42), 424027 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, “Labelling of cells with quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 16(2), R9–R25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. R. Koenig, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Ultrasonically driven nanomechanical single-electron shuttle,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 482–485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

B. Nikoobakht, C. Burda, M. Braun, M. Hun, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The quenching of CdSe quantum dots photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles in solution,” Photochem. Photobiol. 75(6), 591–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

K.-S. Jeon, S.-D. Oh, Y. D. Suh, H. Yoshikawa, H. Masuhara, and M. Yoon, “Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(3), 534–542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. A. Frantsuzov and R. A. Marcusm, “Explanation of quantum dot blinking without the long-lived trap hypothesis,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Leatherdale, C. R. Kagan, N. Y. Morgan, S. A. Empedocles, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoconductivity in CdSe quantum dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2669–2680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “Fluorescence intermittency in self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4883–4886 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. Pelton, G. Smith, N. F. Scherer, and R. A. Marcus, “Evidence for a diffusion-controlled mechanism for fluorescence blinking of colloidal quantum dots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14249–14254 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells,” Science 295(5564), 2425–2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (1924 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) SEM images of CdSe NPs deposited on Si-chips with immersion times of 30min and 2hrs, respectively. In (a) a very low NP density is obtained whereas in (b) some NPs aggregated into small clusters. (c) Image of chip shown in (b) after coating of Au-drain electrode through which the NP PL remains observable.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PL image of bare NPs under an excitation power of 17kW/cm2. (b) PL time trace of the NP indicated by the arrow in (a). (c) Green light excitation spectrum (green curve) and NP PL spectrum (red curve) (Media 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) PL images of sandwiched NP clusters. (c) PL image of sandwiched isolated NPs. The excitation power density in (a) is 10kW/cm2 and in (b) and (c) is 17kW/cm2. The images are all taken at Vb = 10V. (d) The PL time trace of (a). The PL intensity is about two orders of magnitude higher than that for the case of bare NPs shown in Fig. 2(b) (Media 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) the NP and Au-drain energy levels at Vb = 0 and 10V, respectively. (c) Transmission probability of an excited electron (black curve) and hole (red curve) pair as a function of Vb . The difference between ECB-NP and EF-Au calculated as a function of Vb is displayed at upper x-axis for easy viewing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Band diagram drawn for Vb = 10V. The solid red and black lines indicate levels without hole-accumulation. The dashed red and blue lines are drawn for accumulation of 100 holes.

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