Abstract

Rare-earth doped photonic crystal fibers rely ideally on an index matching of the doped core to the surrounding glass to work properly. Obtaining a perfect index matching is technologically very challenging, and fiber manufacturers opt for targeting an index depression instead, which still ensures the influence of the photonic structure on the light propagation. In this paper the analysis of the influence of this core index depression on the higher-order mode discrimination and on the beam quality of the fundamental mode of different designs of core-pumped active large pitch photonic crystal fibers is discussed. The most promising design is evaluated in terms of mode area scaling with a view to mode field diameters above 100µm. Detailed requirements on the accuracy of the core index matching are deduced.

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2009 (2)

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 437–444 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1982 (1)

Andrejco, M. J.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. J.

Bhutta, T.

Brown, T.

DeSantolo, A.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

DiMarcello, F. V.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1797
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

Ðonlagic, D.

Ermeneux, S.

Fermann, M. E.

Fini, J. M.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Goldberg, L.

Gong, M.

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 437–444 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J. C.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Li, J.

Liao, S.

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 437–444 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

Mackenzie, J. I.

Mafi, A.

Marciante, J. R.

Marcuse, D.

McLaughlin, J. M.

Moloney, J. V.

Monberg, E.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1797
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1797
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X.

Ramachandran, S.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Shepherd, D. P.

Siegman, A. E.

Tünnermann, A.

Vrallyay, Z.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

Wong, W. S.

Yablon, A. D.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Yvernault, P.

Zhang, H.

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 437–444 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Vrallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 3–11 (2009). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773295&isnumber=4773293
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Laser Phys. (1)

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 437–444 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

F. Jansen, M. Baumgartl, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of index depressions in active large pitch fibers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Optical Society of America, CWC6 (2010)

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally coupled core fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for effectively single-mode core size scaling,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), paper CTuBB3 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simulated hexagonal structure with a depressed active region (red), and (b) fiber designs under study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-ring design with fixed geometry (Λ = 30µm, d/Λ = 0.3) for (a) perfect index-matching, and index depressions of (b) Δn = 5∙10-5 and c) 10∙10-5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-ring design with adapted geometry (Λ = 30µm, d/Λ variable) for constant FM propagation loss of 1 dB/m for a) perfect index-matching, and for index depressions of b) Δn = 5∙10-5 and c) 10∙10-5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized hole size d/Λ required to obtain a constant FM propagation loss of 1dB/m and a mode field area of 2000µm² for the three designs under study with increasing index depressions. (b) The pitch Λ is approximately constant for each design (albeit different between designs).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mode discrimination between the FM and the 1st HOM for a LPF design with one to three rings of surrounding air holes. The fundamental mode loss was set to 1 dB/m and the effective mode area to 2000 µm².

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated M² of the FM at the point of operation corresponding to Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mode discrimination vs. mode field area for all three designs with and without index depression.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Mode area scaling of a two-ring Large Pitch Fiber with index depression between 0 and 10∙10-5 and a fixed fundamental mode loss of 1 dB/m: mode discrimination against the LP11-like HOM. (b) Simulated beam quality M² of FM.

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