Abstract

We have quantified the sensitivity of a simple method to measure the frequency spectrum of pulsed terahertz (THz) radiation. The THz pulses are upconverted to the optical regime by sideband generation in a zinc telluride (ZnTe) crystal using a continuous wave (cw) narrow-bandwidth near-infrared laser. A single-shot spectral measurement of sideband pulses with a high resolution spectrometer directly provides the spectral information of the THz pulses without the need of adjustable elements in the detection setup. This method has been applied at the free electron laser FELIX, where, for a wavelength of 150 μm (2 THz), pulse trains of 5 μs duration with an integrated energy of 800 nJ, as well as single pulses with an energy as low as 13 nJ could be characterized on a single-shot basis.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with THz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Coherent detection of pulsed narrowband terahertz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Kahn, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, "Optical detection of terahertz radiation by using nonlinear parametric upconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 3248-3250 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Observation of THz to near-infrared parametric conversion in ZnGeP2 crystal," Opt. Express 14, 8311-8316 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Efficient THz generation and frequency upconversion in GaP crystals," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128-1136 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zaks, J. Heyman, D. Stehr, D. D. Allen, N. Coates, and M. Sherwin, "A Single-shot High Resolution THz Upconversion Spectrometer," 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, IEEE, 1-2 (2008).
  10. S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. P. Jamison, "The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses," Appl. Phys. B 91, 241-247 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. http://www.rijnhuizen.nl/felix
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    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Gallot, J. Zhang, and R. W. McGowan, "Tae-In Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. T. Jongma, C. A. J. van der Geer, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. M. van der Slot, W. J. van der Zande, U. Lehnert, P. Michel, R. Wünsch, K. Dunkel, and C. Piel, "Design of the Nijmegen High-Resolution THz-FEL," Proc. FEL-2008, Gyeongju, South Korea, 200-203 (2008).

2010 (1)

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. P. Jamison, "The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses," Appl. Phys. B 91, 241-247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. J. Kahn, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, "Optical detection of terahertz radiation by using nonlinear parametric upconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 3248-3250 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Coherent detection of pulsed narrowband terahertz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Observation of THz to near-infrared parametric conversion in ZnGeP2 crystal," Opt. Express 14, 8311-8316 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Efficient THz generation and frequency upconversion in GaP crystals," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128-1136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with THz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, and R. W. McGowan, "Tae-In Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arsov, V.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Coherent detection of pulsed narrowband terahertz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

M. J. Kahn, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, "Optical detection of terahertz radiation by using nonlinear parametric upconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 3248-3250 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Efficient THz generation and frequency upconversion in GaP crystals," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128-1136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Observation of THz to near-infrared parametric conversion in ZnGeP2 crystal," Opt. Express 14, 8311-8316 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N.

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, and R. W. McGowan, "Tae-In Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, W. A.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, F. K.

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S. P.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, "The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses," Appl. Phys. B 91, 241-247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahn, M. J.

M. J. Kahn, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, "Optical detection of terahertz radiation by using nonlinear parametric upconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 3248-3250 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

M. J. Kahn, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, "Optical detection of terahertz radiation by using nonlinear parametric upconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 3248-3250 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knabbe, E.-A.

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knippels, G. M. H.

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, A. M.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, and R. W. McGowan, "Tae-In Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Coherent detection of pulsed narrowband terahertz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oepts, D.

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, P. J.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlarb, H.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmüser, P.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with THz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Efficient THz generation and frequency upconversion in GaP crystals," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128-1136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Observation of THz to near-infrared parametric conversion in ZnGeP2 crystal," Opt. Express 14, 8311-8316 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steffen, B.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yasumoto, M.

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, and R. W. McGowan, "Tae-In Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. P. Jamison, "The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses," Appl. Phys. B 91, 241-247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, and R. W. McGowan, "Tae-In Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Observation of difference-frequency generation by mixing of terahertz and near-infrared laser beams in a GaSe crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Coherent detection of pulsed narrowband terahertz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, and A. M. MacLeod, "Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with THz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Observation of THz to near-infrared parametric conversion in ZnGeP2 crystal," Opt. Express 14, 8311-8316 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. J. Kahn, J. C. Chen, and S. Kaushik, "Optical detection of terahertz radiation by using nonlinear parametric upconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 3248-3250 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, E.-A. Knabbe, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser, and B. Steffen, "Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Knippels, X. Yan, A. M. MacLeod, W. A. Gillespie, M. Yasumoto, D. Oepts, and A. F. G. van der Meer, "Generation and complete electric-field characterization of intense ultrashort tunable far-infrared laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams (1)

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. A. Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, and P. Schmüser, "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

Y. J. Ding and W. Shi, "Efficient THz generation and frequency upconversion in GaP crystals," Solid-State Electron. 50, 1128-1136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Zaks, J. Heyman, D. Stehr, D. D. Allen, N. Coates, and M. Sherwin, "A Single-shot High Resolution THz Upconversion Spectrometer," 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, IEEE, 1-2 (2008).

http://www.rijnhuizen.nl/felix

R. T. Jongma, C. A. J. van der Geer, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. M. van der Slot, W. J. van der Zande, U. Lehnert, P. Michel, R. Wünsch, K. Dunkel, and C. Piel, "Design of the Nijmegen High-Resolution THz-FEL," Proc. FEL-2008, Gyeongju, South Korea, 200-203 (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Upconversion spectra recorded for three THz frequencies. The frequency of the near-infrared laser is defined as zero, such that the THz frequency can be directly read. The individual spectra are normalized to the maximum of the sideband signal and are vertically offset for readibility. The FEL intensity for the upper and lower spectrum was smaller, thus leading to the apparent increase of the carrier laser signal. The spectra are all recorded at a NIR laser intensity of 20 mW and full THz pulse energy. The inset shows the central frequency obtained using upconversion against direct calibration with a Far-Infrared grating spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

THz laser energy and NIR laser power dependence of the sideband energy recorded at 151 μm. For the left panel, a NIR laser power of 20 mW was used, for the right panel a THz macro-pulse energy of 50 μJ was used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-shot spectral THz profiles for different FEL cavity lengths: (a) using direct detection, (b) Black lines: using upconversion. Dashed red lines: direct detection spectra convoluted with the upconversion spectrometer instrument function (approximately 0.2 cm−1 full width at half-maximum causing noticeable broadening). We note that the broadest direct detection spectrum (lower curve, panel b) could not be completely measured using direct detection, resulting in a reduced width of the convoluted spectrum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Signal-to-noise ration (SNR) and noise-limited detection limit for several benchmarking experimental conditions

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