Abstract

We describe the design, fabrication and laboratory tests of a Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) interferometer for upper atmospheric wind and temperature observations of the O[1D] 630 nm emission. The monolithic interferometer has no moving parts, a large étendue, relaxed fabrication and alignment tolerances and can measure multiple emission lines simultaneously. Laboratory measurements indicate that the design resolution and étendue were achieved and that thermal drifts can be determined with sufficient precision for geophysical applications.

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  1. T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
    [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.
  9. J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D. D.

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardon, J. G.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conway, R. R.

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Emmert, J. T.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

Englert, C. R.

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gell, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J. M.

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niciejewski, R. J.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ortland, D. A.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. J.

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siskind, D. E.

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.

Skinner, W. R.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. H.

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. G. Cardon, and F. L. Roesler, “Correction of phase distortion in spatial heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(36), 6680–6687 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, J. G. Cardon, C. R. Englert, and R. R. Conway, “SHIMMER: a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing of earth’s middle atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41(7), 1343–1352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. M. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (1)

J. W. Meriwether, “Studies of thermospheric dynamics with a Fabry–Perot interferometer network: A review,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(13), 1576–1589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S. C. Solomon, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, R. J. Niciejewski, and D. A. Gell, “TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10S01 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, and W. R. Skinner, “The High-Resolution Doppler Imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Sateelite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D6), 10713–10723 (1993), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, M. H. Stevens, D. E. Siskind, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “The Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on STPSat-1,” J. Geophys. Res. in press., doi:.

Opt. Express (1)

C. R. Englert, J. M. Harlander, J. T. Emmert, D. D. Babcock, and F. L. Roesler, “Initial ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH),” Opt. Express . submitted.
[PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferograms and their difference for two isolated emission lines with slightly different line centers. DASH measures the interferogram within a path difference interval (shown schematically in red) around the optimum path difference (black arrow) for Doppler winds.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a DASH interferometer from Englert et. al. [10]. Due to the different arm lengths, the path difference interval imaged on the detector array is not centered on zero path difference as in conventional SHS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the DASH interferometer for the 630 nm emission. The central blue ray is along the optical axis. The green and red ray bundles are at the edges of the grating aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The monolithic as-built red line DASH interferometer. Hollow spacers on either side of the field widening prism are strain relieved to allow for differential thermal expansion of the interferometer glasses. The triangular edges of the Köster’s prism beamsplitter are each 100 mm long.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modeled (black, monochromatic line) and measured (red, finite line width) fringes for f/19 beam (left) and f/6 beam (right). The decrease in visibility at f/6 is due to the change of fringe frequency with off axis angle. The intensity axis is in arbitrary units. The difference in the modeled and measured fringe patterns can be attributed to the spectral width of the Ne emission line that was used as a source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

When the measured source line width is included in the model (black), it is in good agreement with the measurement (red).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in the fringe patterns of two Ar lines when the temperature of the interferometer enclosure is cycled between 28° C and 30° C. The left panel shows the intercept shift corresponding to the extrapolated absolute phase at zero path difference, while the right panel shows the slope or frequency change. The traces for the two Ar lines are shown in black and red and are essentially on top of one another.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design properties of the 630 nm DASH interferometer.

Equations (3)

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L O P T = 2 Δ d O P T = 1 2 π σ D
σ D = σ E k T m c 2
α C T E = d n d T n n 2 1

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