Abstract

The long-term carrier-envelope phase (CEP) coherence of a femtosecond laser with same pulse-to-pulse CEP value, obtained using the direct locking method, is demonstrated by employing a quasi-common-path interferometer (QPI). For the evaluation of the CEP stability, the phase noise properties of a femtosecond laser with the CEP stabilized using a QPI are compared with those obtained using a Mach-Zehnder f-2f interferometer, for which the phase power spectral density and the Allan deviation were calculated from the beat signals of the interferometers. With the improved CEP stability, the long-term CEP coherent signal with an accumulated phase noise well below 1 radian can be maintained for more than 56 hours, i.e., the CEP coherence is preserved without a phase cycle slip for more than 1.6 × 1013 pulses at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The relative stability is also estimated to be approximately 1.4 × 10−22 at a central wavelength of 790 nm.

© 2010 OSA

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  2. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 201–219 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 ghz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 201–219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Rutman and F. L. Walls, “Characterization of frequency stability in precision frequency sources,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 952–960 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 ghz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benedick, A. J.

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binhammer, T.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birge, J. R.

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-J.

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.-G.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I. W.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 201–219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 ghz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, Z.

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 ghz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, P.

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, C.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebing, C.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, E.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harth, A.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. E.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. B.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-K.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koke, S.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’huillier, A.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lee, W.-K.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehnert, W.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lépine, F.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-martens, R.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manschwetus, B.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marra, G.

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauritsson, J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mével, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E.

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Y.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

Poletto, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rausch, S.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remetter, T.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rutman, J.

J. Rutman and F. L. Walls, “Characterization of frequency stability in precision frequency sources,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 952–960 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, M. Y.

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, M.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, E.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelton, R. K.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, M.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strelkov, V.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J. H.

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tackett, J.

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trung, L. T.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsatourian, V.

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varjú, K.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walls, F. L.

J. Rutman and F. L. Walls, “Characterization of frequency stability in precision frequency sources,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 952–960 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 201–219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, D.-H.

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T. J.

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, C.

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, M.

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5127–5130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Phase stabilization of mode-locked lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(2), 201–219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varjú, Y. Ni, F. Lépine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. López-martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. L’huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Y. S. Lee, J. H. Sung, C. H. Nam, T. J. Yu, and K.-H. Hong, “Novel method for carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2969–2976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8203–8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Z. Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, L. T. Trung, W.-K. Lee, D.-H. Yu, H. Y. Ryu, C. H. Nam, and C. Y. Park, “Demonstration of an optical frequency synthesizer with zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency stabilized by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20920–20926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12624–12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20699–20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1436–1438 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 445–447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 310–312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 ghz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 1011–1013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, Th. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tsatourian, H. S. Margolis, G. Marra, D. T. Reid, and P. Gill, “Common-path self-referencing interferometer for carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization with enhanced noise immunity,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1209–1211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

J. Rutman and F. L. Walls, “Characterization of frequency stability in precision frequency sources,” Proc. IEEE 79(7), 952–960 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. A. Howe, D. W. Allan, and J. A. Barnes, “Properties of signal sources and measurement methods,” Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control (1981).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental setup used for comparing the stability performance between a two-arm f-2f interferometer (blue dashed box) and a quasi-common-path f-2f interferometer (red dashed box). The in-loop interferometer and DL setup are used to stabilize the CEP of the femtosecond laser, and the out-of-loop interferometer serves to monitor the stability performance of CEP. The black lines and dashed lines denote the paths of optical and electrical signals, respectively. FFT: fast Fourier-transform analyzer, HWP: half-wave plate, IF: interference filter, P: polarizer, PBS: polarization beam splitter, PCF: photonic crystal fiber, PD: double balanced detector, PZT: piezo-electric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Phase power spectral density of stabilized CEP signals obtained with two interferometer setups in in-loop (a) and out-of-loop (b) conditions. The black lines represent the results of the two-arm f-2f interferometer and the red lines represent those of the quasi-common-path f-2f interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Integrated phase timing jitter and (b) Allan deviation calculated from the phase power spectral density given in Fig. 2. The black line and red line represent the results obtained with the two-arm scheme and the quasi-common-path scheme, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) In-loop beat signal observed over two days while maintaining CEP stabilization. The rms accumulated phase noise was calculated to be 60 mrad, which corresponds to a phase time jitter of 25 attoseconds at a central wavelength of 790nm. The inset shows the modified Allan deviation calculated with the long-term stabilized signal.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ϕ ( f ) = { V rms (f) V s } 2 1 B W ,
Δ T rms ( τ obs ) = λ C 2 π c Δ ϕ rms ( τ obs ) = λ C 2 π c { 2 1 / τ obs d f S ϕ ( f ) } 1 2 ,
σ y ( τ ) = { 2 ( π v 0 τ ) 2 d f S ϕ ( f ) sin 4 ( π f τ ) } 1 2

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