Abstract

A fiber Bragg grating written in a photosensitive microfiber using KrF excimer laser via a uniform phase mask is demonstrated. We have successfully fabricated two Bragg gratings in microfibers having different diameters. In the reflection spectrum of a microfiber Bragg grating (MFBG), we observed two reflection peaks,which agrees with our numerical simulation results. Compared with the fundamental mode reflection, the higher-order reflection mode is more sensitive to the refractive index (RI) variation of the surrounding fluid due to its larger evanescent field. The measured maximum sensitivity is ~102 nm/RIU (RI unit) at an RI value of 1.378 in an MFBG with a diameter of 6 μm.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Sumetsky, “Optical fiber microcoil resonators,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2303–2316 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2164–2166 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Guo and L. M. Tong, “Supported microfiber loops for optical sensing,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14429–14434 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Scattering of an evanescent light field by a single cesium atom near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 013819 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. J. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 85–87 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2010

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. J. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 85–87 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo and L. M. Tong, “Supported microfiber loops for optical sensing,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14429–14434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2164–2166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Scattering of an evanescent light field by a single cesium atom near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 013819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, “Optical fiber microcoil resonators,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2303–2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alt, W.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balykin, V. I.

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Scattering of an evanescent light field by a single cesium atom near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 013819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2164–2166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucholtz, F.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. H.

Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dulashko, Y.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finazzi, V.

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F. X.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo and L. M. Tong, “Supported microfiber loops for optical sensing,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14429–14434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakuta, K.

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Scattering of an evanescent light field by a single cesium atom near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 013819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horak, P.

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, C.-L.

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L. L.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. X.

Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. D.

X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X. S.

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. J. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 85–87 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le Kien, F.

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Scattering of an evanescent light field by a single cesium atom near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 013819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. L.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. J.

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. J. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 85–87 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meschede, D.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, Y.-J.

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagué, G.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski, M.

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, “Optical fiber microcoil resonators,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2303–2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L. M.

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo and L. M. Tong, “Supported microfiber loops for optical sensing,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14429–14434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetsch, E.

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vienne, G.

X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. N.

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warken, F.

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, E. M.

Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2164–2166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, H. F.

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. J. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 85–87 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G.-G.

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. F.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. J.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. L.

Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, X. S. Jiang, X. Guo, Y. Chen, and L. M. Tong, “Hybrid structure laser based on semiconductor nanowires and a silica microfiber knot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. L. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, E. M. Xu, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “All-Optical Format Conversion From RZ to NRZ Utilizing Microfiber Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1202–1204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, X. Zeng, Y.-J. Rao, Y. Gong, C.-L. Hou, and G.-G. Yang, “MOEMS Accelerometer Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1547–1549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, “Optical fiber microcoil resonators,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2303–2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo and L. M. Tong, “Supported microfiber loops for optical sensing,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14429–14434 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. J. Rao, Y. H. Chen, and Y. Gong, “Miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors based on silica/polymer microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18142–18147 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5087–5092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and M. Zhang, “CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21882–21890 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, and D. N. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, and S. J. Liu, “Long-period gratings in wavelength-scale microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 85–87 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Embedding optical microfiber coil resonators in Teflon,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2164–2166 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Scattering of an evanescent light field by a single cesium atom near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 73(1), 013819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) MFBG1 and (b) MFBG2; (c) schematic diagram to show the operation principle of mode coupling in an MFBG, the grating region is in the blue circle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectra of MFBG1 in air (n = 1) and IPA (n = 1.378). The green dash-dot lines mark the simulated positions of the resonance wavelengths when MFBG1 immerses in air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection spectra of MFBG2 in air (n = 1) and IPA (n = 1.378). The green dash-dot lines mark the simulated positions of the resonance wavelengths when MFBG2 immerses in air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the reflection wavelengths shift on the ambient RI.

Equations (1)

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λ = ( n e f f , 1 + n e f f , 2 ) Λ

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