Abstract

Abstract: We have demonstrated multicolored reflections showing various whitish colors from a bichiral liquid crystal (LC) film. The bichiral LC film was fabricated by using left-handed and right-handed polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) films with two different helical pitches and an isotropic polymer film in between. Color temperatures of the multiple reflections are controlled from ~4000 K to ~10000 K by changing linear polarization directions of normally incident and reflected lights. This characteristic can extend practical applications of CLCs to illuminant devices.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization-independent multiple selective reflections from bichiral liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J.-C. Su and C.-L. Lu, “Color temperature tunable white light emitting diodes packaged with an omni-directional reflector,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21408–21413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1983

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4-matrix formation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(4), 502–510 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4-matrix formation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(4), 502–510 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, M.

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-H.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Z.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R. B.

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fellow, N. N.

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization-independent multiple selective reflections from bichiral liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, M.

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hara, M.

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y.-L.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishkawa, K.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization-independent multiple selective reflections from bichiral liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jou, J.-H.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawagami, Y.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Köhnen, A.

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, E.

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-R.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-L.

J.-C. Su and C.-L. Lu, “Color temperature tunable white light emitting diodes packaged with an omni-directional reflector,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21408–21413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meerholz, K.

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, T.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization-independent multiple selective reflections from bichiral liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, T.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oushi, Y.

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.-M.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, K.-C.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.-C.

J.-C. Su and C.-L. Lu, “Color temperature tunable white light emitting diodes packaged with an omni-directional reflector,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21408–21413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugita, A.

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization-independent multiple selective reflections from bichiral liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, Y.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-C.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, J.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-H.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J.-H. Jou, M.-H. Wu, S.-M. Shen, H.-C. Wang, S.-Z. Chen, S.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lin, and Y.-L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Köhnen, K. Meerholz, M. Hagemann, M. Brinkmann, and S. Sinzinger, “Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawagami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Emission color tunable light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multifacet quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Fellow, H. Sato, Y.- Lin, R. B. Chung, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Dichromatic color tuning with InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization-independent multiple selective reflections from bichiral liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

D. W. Berreman, “Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4-matrix formation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(4), 502–510 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Ohta, M. H. Song, Y. Tsunoda, T. Nagata, K.-C. Shin, F. Araoka, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishkawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Monodomain film formation and lasing in dye-doped polymer cholesteric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A), 6142–6144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, A. Sugita, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Experimental observation of the total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21(Part 2, No. 6), L390–L392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Takezoe, Y. Oushi, M. Hara, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “A tunable 90° rotator using a total reflection by a monodomain cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2, No. 3), L185–L187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J.-C. Su and C.-L. Lu, “Color temperature tunable white light emitting diodes packaged with an omni-directional reflector,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21408–21413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. G. De Gennes, and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Oxford, New York, 1993).

R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring Color, 2nd ed. (Ellis Horwood, New York, 1991).

D. B. Judd, and G. Wyszecki, Colors in Business, Science, and Industry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1963).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustrations of the measurements setup of an L-PCLC film for various linear polarization directions ϕ of obliquely incident and reflected lights. (b) Simulated reflection spectra of the L-PCLC film with n o = 1.56, n e = 1.78, λ p = 800 nm, and d L-PCLC = 20.0P using R- and L-CP incident lights (upper), LP incident and reflected lights with ϕ = 0° and 90° (middle), and ϕ = 45° and 135° (lower). The incident angle of various polarized lights is fixed as θ = 52°. (c) Schematic illustrations of the measurements setup of a bichiral LC film for various ϕ of normally incident and reflected lights. The bichiral LC film M 3 = {ABABA} consisting of A layer (L-PCLC, PVA, and R-PCLC films) and B layer (PVA film). (d) Simulated reflection spectra of M 3 with n o = 1.56, n e = 1.78, λ p = 480 nm for L-PCLC, d L-PCLC = 2.00P, λ p = 610 nm for R-PCLC, d R-PCLC = 2.00P, and d PVA = 0.250 μm, using R- and L-CP incident lights (upper) and LP incident and reflected lights with ϕ = 0° and 90° (middle), and ϕ = 45° and 135° (lower).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured (solid line) and simulated (dashed line) transmission spectra of M 3 (black) for normal incidences of L-CP (upper) and R-CP lights. (b) Measured reflection spectra of M 3 for linear polarization angles ϕ = 0° (upper, black solid line), 90° (upper, gray solid line), 45° (upper, black solid line), and 135° (lower, gray solid line) of normally incident and reflected LP lights.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Measured and (b) simulated reflection spectra of the sample M 3 for various polarization angles ϕ of normally incident and reflected lights. White dashed lines are eye guidelines. Colors represent the reflectance obtained from the bichiral LC film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (circles) and simulated (squares) reflection colors in the CIE chromaticity diagram calculated from the reflection spectra of M 3 in Fig. 3. Also shown are the coordinates corresponding to 2500 K, 4000 K, 5000 K, 6500 K, 7500 K, and 10000 K (triangles). The solid line indicates different color temperatures.

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