Abstract

We present an experimental study on the bending loss of terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide. Bending loss of pipe waveguides is investigated for various frequencies, polarizations, core diameters, cladding thicknesses, and cladding materials. Our results indicate that the pipe waveguides with lower guiding loss suffer lower bending loss due to stronger mode confinement. The unexpected low bending loss in the investigated simple leaky waveguide structure promises variety of flexible applications.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
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  8. L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9944–9954 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “THz pulse propagation in plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abeeluck, A. K.

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J.

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afshar V, S.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astley, V.

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atakaramians, S.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, J.-L.

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, X.-Z.

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudou, B.

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blondy, J.-M.

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, B.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-C.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-J.

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, P.-J.

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-M.

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “THz pulse propagation in plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, A.

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gérôme, F.

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, M.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “THz pulse propagation in plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassani, A.

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Headley, C.

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, T.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, Y.-C.

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.-Y.

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-J.

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-R.

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humbert, G.

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y.-J.

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichikawa, S.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jamier, R.

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamison, S. P.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, T.-F.

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “THz pulse propagation in plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-C.

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, J. L.

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, J.-L.

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9944–9954 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C.-H.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-T.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litchinitser, N. M.

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-A.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Y.

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.-Y.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchewka, A.

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9944–9954 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, Y.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mbonye, M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9944–9954 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, K.

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, J.-I.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ono, S.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “THz pulse propagation in plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.-L.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planken, P. C.

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quema, A.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, H. K.

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarukura, N.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scheiman, J.

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorobogatiy, M.

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-K.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.-G.

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, T.-F.

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viale, P.

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-Q.

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, B.

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-P.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R.-J.

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-Q.

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “THz pulse propagation in plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Dupuis, “Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz guidance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-P. Yu, H.-C. Chang, H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz air-core microstructure fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 064105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R.-J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y.-Q. Zhang, C.-Q. Wu, Z.-G. Tian, and X.-Z. Bai, “Proposal for ultralow loss hollow-core plastic Bragg fiber with cobweb-structured cladding for terahertz waveguiding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 910–912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449–4451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Hidaka, H. Minamide, H. Ito, J.-I. Nishizawa, K. Tamura, and S. Ichikawa, “Ferroelectric PVDF cladding terahertz waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2469–2473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chen, C.-M. Chiu, J.-L. Kuo, P.-J. Chiang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Subwavelength dielectric-fiber-based terahertz coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1489–1495 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

T. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Flexible terahertz fiber optics with low bend-induced losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1230–1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. (1)

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Lett. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9944–9954 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8592 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-9-6340 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-12-8845 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H.-C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-1-309 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J.-L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J.-M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Astley, J. Scheiman, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Bending and coupling losses in terahertz wire waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 553–555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lai, Y.-C. Hsueh, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, H.-C. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-index terahertz pipe waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3457–3459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bowden, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2945–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

http://www.ptfe-plastic.com.tw

J. A. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstrac t.cfm?URI = OPEX-12–21–5263.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structure of the pipe waveguide. (b) Cross section of the pipe waveguide (n1 = 1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the bending losses of THz pipe waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Attenuation spectrum of straight Teflon pipe waveguides for D = 9 mm and t = 0.5 mm. (b) Bending loss spectra of the pipe waveguide (D = 9 mm, t = 0.5 mm) for R = 75 cm (solid black squares) and R = 60 cm (solid red circles). Polarization of the input THz waves was perpendicular to the bending plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bending loss of the Teflon pipe waveguides for polarization perpendicular (solid black squares) and parallel (solid red circles) to the bending plane. Measurement frequency was 420GHz. The core diameter and cladding thickness of the Teflon pipe waveguide in this experiment were 9 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Attenuation spectra of straight Teflon pipe waveguides for t = 0.5 mm (solid black squares) and 1.0 mm (solid red circles). The core diameters were the same (D = 9 mm) (b) The dependence of bending loss on cladding thickness of pipe waveguides at the anti-resonant frequencies for pipe waveguides of t = 0.5 mm (solid black squares) and 1.0 mm (solid red circles). The core diameters were the same (D = 9 mm), and the polarization was perpendicular to the bending plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bending loss of pipe waveguides for different core diameters of 9 mm (black solid squares) and 7 mm (red solid circles). Measurement frequency was 420GHz. The cladding thickness was fixed at 0.5 mm, and the polarization was perpendicular to the bending plane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Attenuation spectra of Teflon (black solid squares) and glass (red solid circles) pipe waveguides. The core diameter (9mm) and the cladding thickness (1mm) were the same. (b) The corresponding bending loss of the pipe waveguides measured at the anti-resonant frequencies for Teflon (black solid squares) and glass (red solid circles) pipe waveguides. THz polarization was perpendicular to the bending plane.

Equations (1)

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P b = P s × e α R L

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