Abstract

A simple method to make a switchable liquid crystal (LC) Fresnel lens with high diffraction efficiency and a low driving voltage was proposed based on the photo-induced surface modification of the vertical alignment layer. UV illumination alters the pretilt angle of alignment layers, a Fresnel zone-distribution hybrid alignment in the homeotropic LC cell can be straightforwardly achieved through UV exposure, yielding a concentric structure of the Fresnel phase LC lens. A remarkable diffraction efficiency of ~31.4%, close to the measured diffraction efficiency of the used Fresnel-zone-plate mask of 32%, was detected using a linearly polarized incident beam.

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  1. N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ferstl and A. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(7), 1451–1462 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-Focus Liquid-Crystal Fresnel Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), 626–628 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Fabrication of micro lenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6(12), 613–615 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Ferstl and A. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(7), 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-Focus Liquid-Crystal Fresnel Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), 626–628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Fabrication of micro lenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6(12), 613–615 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, H. J.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, K. T.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. H.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, S. V.

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferstl, M.

M. Ferstl and A. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(7), 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, A.

M. Ferstl and A. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(7), 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.

L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, T.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Fabrication of micro lenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6(12), 613–615 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulari, E.

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T. F.

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, W. C.

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, Y. L. H.

Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H. C.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, I. M.

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanickia, J.

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-W.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-R.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-J.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitaura, N.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Fabrication of micro lenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6(12), 613–615 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, P.

C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L. C.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T. H.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. K.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M. Yu.

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, G. D.

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A. F.

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishihara, H.

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Fabrication of micro lenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6(12), 613–615 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogata, S.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, R.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-Focus Liquid-Crystal Fresnel Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), 626–628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-Focus Liquid-Crystal Fresnel Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), 626–628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, A.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-Focus Liquid-Crystal Fresnel Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), 626–628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ting, C. L.

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-H.

C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, F. L.

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. L.

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeung, F. S. Y.

Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

W. C. Hung, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Lin, I. M. Jiang, and T. F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2094–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee; “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Lu, S. V. Deshpande, E. Gulari, J. Kanickia, and W. L. Warren, “Ultraviolet light induced changes in polyimide liquid-crystal alignment films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 5028–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp Tech. (1)

Y. W. Li, Y. L. H. Jacob, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous Determination of Large Pretilt Angles and Cell Gap in Liquid Crystal Displays,” J. Disp Tech. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Ferstl and A. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(7), 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, “Liquid crystal lens for compensation of spherical aberration in multilayer optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 2B), 1152–1157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-Focus Liquid-Crystal Fresnel Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), 626–628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Lin, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Fabrication of micro lenses using electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 6(12), 613–615 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C.-H. Tsai, P. Lai, K. Lee, and C. K. Lee, “Fabrication of a large F-number lenticular plate and its use as a small-angle flat-top diffuser in autostereoscopic display screens,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 322–329 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Lin, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Fresnel lenses based on dye-doped liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6911, 69110I–1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Williams, N. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable LC Fresnel Lens” opto-electronics Symposium SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The process flow of the hybrid aligned liquid crystal Fresnel lens

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup for studying the focusing properties of the LC Fresnel lens

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy versus UV illumination time

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarizing microscope photographs of the Fresnel lens cell at (a) V=0, (b) 1.0 Vrms, (c) 2.0 Vrms, and (d) 7.0 Vrms. The LC cell is sandwiched between crossed polarizers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The observed laser beam images (a) without LC sample and with sample at the applied voltage (b) V=0, (c) V = 1.1 Vrms, (d) V = 10 Vrms, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam intensity profiles measured by the CCD camera under different conditions: (a) with sample at V=0 and (b) V=1.1 Vrms.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffracted V patterns of the Fresnel LC lens when voltages are applied at (a) 0, (b) 1.1, and (c) 10 Vrms. The CCD camera was 30 cm away from the sample.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The voltage-dependent diffraction efficiency of the LC Fresnel lens

Equations (1)

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η m = [ sin [ π λ ( Δ e v e n Δ o d d ) ] m π 2 ] 2

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