Abstract

This paper aims at describing the perceived brightness of persistent luminescent materials for emergency signage. In case of emergency, typically, a fully light adapted person is left in the dark, except for the emergency sign. The available photometric models cannot describe visibility of such light source, as they do not consider the slow dark adaptation of the human eye. The model proposed here fully takes into account the shift from photopic to scotopic vision, the related shift in spectral sensitivity and the dark adaptation. The resulting metric is a ‘visibility index’ and preliminary tests show that it more realistically describes the perceived brightness of persistent luminescent materials than the common photometric standards.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

Dirk Poelman and Philippe F. Smet, "Photometry in the dark: time dependent visibility of low intensity light sources: erratum," Opt. Express 19, 18808-18809 (2011)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-20-18808

References

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  1. A. Stockman, and L. T. Sharpe, “Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous efficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 225–239 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express 17, 358–364 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+-doped compounds: a review,” Materials 3, 2536–2566 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. GloTech International, http://www.glotechint.com/index.html.
  6. ISO 23539:2005(E) / CIE S 010/E:2004 standard: “Photometry - The CIE System of Physical Photometry,” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2005).
  7. CIE Technical Report 191:2010: “Recommended system for mesopic photometry based on visual performance,” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2010).
  8. H. Davson, The Eye, Vol. 2 (Academic Press, New York, 1962).
  9. S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Valberg, Light vision color (Wiley, Chichester, 2005).
  11. M. Eloholma, and L. Halonen, “New model for mesopic photometry and its application to road lighting,” LEUKOS 2, 263–293 (2006).
  12. K. Sagawa, “Toward a CIE supplementary system of photometry: brightness at any level including mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 240–245 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Nakazawa, “Fundamentals of luminescence,” in Phosphor Handbook, 2nd ed., W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007), pp. 83–97.

2010 (1)

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+-doped compounds: a review,” Materials 3, 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express 17, 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Eloholma, and L. Halonen, “New model for mesopic photometry and its application to road lighting,” LEUKOS 2, 263–293 (2006).

K. Sagawa, “Toward a CIE supplementary system of photometry: brightness at any level including mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 240–245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stockman, and L. T. Sharpe, “Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous efficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avci, N.

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express 17, 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bierman, A.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, J. D.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eloholma, M.

M. Eloholma, and L. Halonen, “New model for mesopic photometry and its application to road lighting,” LEUKOS 2, 263–293 (2006).

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haig, G.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halonen, L.

M. Eloholma, and L. Halonen, “New model for mesopic photometry and its application to road lighting,” LEUKOS 2, 263–293 (2006).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peskin, J. C.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poelman, D.

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+-doped compounds: a review,” Materials 3, 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express 17, 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sagawa, K.

K. Sagawa, “Toward a CIE supplementary system of photometry: brightness at any level including mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 240–245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, L. T.

A. Stockman, and L. T. Sharpe, “Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous efficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smet, P. F.

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+-doped compounds: a review,” Materials 3, 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express 17, 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. L.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, A.

A. Stockman, and L. T. Sharpe, “Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous efficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van den Eeckhout, K.

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+-doped compounds: a review,” Materials 3, 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, G. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, “The visual functions of the complete colorblind,” J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459–472 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LEUKOS (1)

M. Eloholma, and L. Halonen, “New model for mesopic photometry and its application to road lighting,” LEUKOS 2, 263–293 (2006).

Lighting Res. Tech. (1)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36, 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in Eu2+-doped compounds: a review,” Materials 3, 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

K. Sagawa, “Toward a CIE supplementary system of photometry: brightness at any level including mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 240–245 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stockman, and L. T. Sharpe, “Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous efficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express 17, 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Valberg, Light vision color (Wiley, Chichester, 2005).

GloTech International, http://www.glotechint.com/index.html.

ISO 23539:2005(E) / CIE S 010/E:2004 standard: “Photometry - The CIE System of Physical Photometry,” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2005).

CIE Technical Report 191:2010: “Recommended system for mesopic photometry based on visual performance,” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2010).

H. Davson, The Eye, Vol. 2 (Academic Press, New York, 1962).

E. Nakazawa, “Fundamentals of luminescence,” in Phosphor Handbook, 2nd ed., W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007), pp. 83–97.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reference spectra (measured in steady state) of commercially available persistent luminescent materials, used as benchmarks for model testing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminance decay of the benchmark persistent phosphors, after charging for 5 minutes with 1000 lux of an unfiltered Xe-arc.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark adaptation of the human eye using violet light (wavelengths below 460 nm), after light adaptation to about 5000 cd/m2. Adapted from [8].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apparent brightness, called ‘visibility index’ VI, of the benchmark persistent phosphors, after charging for 5 minutes with 1000 lux of an unfiltered Xe-arc. The observer is fully light adapted at time zero.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = K m × I ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ
P = K m × I ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ
K m × V ( λ ) = K m × V ( λ ) at 555 nm
K m = K m × V ( 555 nm ) V ( 555 nm ) = 683 l m / W × 1 0.402 = 1700 lm / W
X = L 0.599 0.001 0.599
L = 0.834 P 0.335 S 0.2 + ( 0.696 P 2 0.333 P 0.56 S P + 0.113 S 2 + 0.537 S + 0.04 ) 1 / 2
VI ( I ( λ ) , t ) = X × P P T I ( λ ) ( t ) + ( 1 X ) × S S T I ( λ ) ( t )
V ( λ ) = 0.23919 exp [ ( λ 530.52 ) 2 850.73 ] + 0.91063 exp [ ( λ 565.62 ) 2 3323.3 ] + 0.03101 exp [ ( λ 463.87 ) 2 658.13 ]
V ( λ ) = 0.99927 exp [ ( λ 507.05 ) 2 2522.3 ] + 0.18215 exp [ ( λ 449.42 ) 2 646.47 ]
P T 460 ( t ) = 0.00270 + 0.05326 exp ( t / 0.03142 ) + 0.0292 exp ( t / 0.74034 )
S T 460 ( t ) = 2.98 × 10 6 + 0.60056 exp ( t / 1.2124 ) + 1.97 × 10 5 exp ( t / 13.586 )
P T I ( λ ) ( t ) = P T 460 ( t ) × V ( 460 nm ) × I ( λ ) d λ I ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ
S T I ( λ ) ( t ) = S T 460 ( t ) × V ( 460 nm ) × I ( λ ) d λ I ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ

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