Abstract

Antireflective properties of one-dimensional periodically microstructured lens surfaces (refractive index 1.5) are studied with the Green’s function surface integral equation method, and design guidelines are obtained. Special attention is given to the requirement of having practically all incident light transmitted in the fundamental transmission diffraction order. The effect of the presence of higher transmission diffraction orders is studied to determine if such more easily fabricated structures will be useful. The decrease of optimum fill factor of a periodic array of subwavelength ridges with structure period is explained as a waveguiding effect. Near-fields are calculated illustrating standing-wave interference and waveguiding effects for ridge structures, and adiabatic field transformation for tapered structures, including evanescent near-fields in in- and out-coupling regions. The antireflective properties of tapered geometries are considered for a wide range of angles of light incidence. It is found that while the reflection can be very small this rarely implies high transmission into the fundamental transmission diffraction order when higher-order transmission diffraction orders exist. This leads to the guideline that for visible and normally incident light the surface structure period should not be larger than ~300 nm, and a smaller period is needed in the case of oblique light incidence.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Bäumer, ed., Handbook of Plastic Optics 2nd edition (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010).
  2. D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Homogeneous layer models for high-spatial-frequency dielectric surface-relief gratings: conical diffraction and antireflection designs,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2695–2706 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, and M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4562–4567 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, “High-spatial-frequency binary and multilevel stairstep gratings: polarization-selective mirrors and broadband antireflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4459–4470 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, and W. J. Gunning, “Antireflection surfaces in silicon using binary optics technology,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4371–4376 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection structured surfaces for the infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 32(7), 1154–1167 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Analysis of antireflection-structured surfaces with continuous one-dimensional surface profiles,” Appl. Opt. 32(14), 2582–2598 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. U. Schulz, “Wideband antireflection coatings by combining interference multilayers with structured top layers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8704–8708 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. S. Park, Y. Lee, and J. K. Kim, “One-Step Preparation of Antireflection Film by Spin Coating of Polymer/Solvent/Nonsolvent Ternary System,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3944–3950 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. G. Prevo, E. W. Hon, and O. D. Velev, “Assembly and characterization of colloid-based antireflective coatings on multicrystalline solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 791–799 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Jiang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Antireflective structures via spin casting of polymer latex,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 575–577 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Søndergaard, “Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green’s function integral equation methods,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3448–3462 (2007) (b).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. W. Prather, M. S. Mirotznik, and J. N. Mait, “Boundary integral methods applied to the analysis of diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 34–43 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, Wiley, New York, 2nd ed., (2002).
  27. G. Kobidze, B. Shanker, and D. P. Nyquist, “Efficient integral-equation-based method for accurate analysis of scattering from periodically arranged nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056702 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. Van Orden and V. Lomakin, “Rapidly Convergent Representations for 2D and 3D Green's Functions for a Linear Periodic Array of Dipole Sources,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(7), 1973–1984 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(195407), 9 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. V. Klein, and T. E. Furtak, Optics, second edition (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986).
  31. D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50(8), 704–709 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge university press, New York 2006).
  34. R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. P. Lalanne, “Waveguiding in blazed-binary diffractive elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10), 2517–2520 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. F. Monaco, “Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(3), 280–282 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. J. Minot, “Single-layer, gradient refractive index antireflection films effective from 0.35 to 2.5 μ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(6), 515–519 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

U. Schulz, “Wideband antireflection coatings by combining interference multilayers with structured top layers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8704–8708 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Orden and V. Lomakin, “Rapidly Convergent Representations for 2D and 3D Green's Functions for a Linear Periodic Array of Dipole Sources,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(7), 1973–1984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(195407), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Prevo, E. W. Hon, and O. D. Velev, “Assembly and characterization of colloid-based antireflective coatings on multicrystalline solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 791–799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Antireflective structures via spin casting of polymer latex,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 575–577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, “Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green’s function integral equation methods,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3448–3462 (2007) (b).
[CrossRef]

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Park, Y. Lee, and J. K. Kim, “One-Step Preparation of Antireflection Film by Spin Coating of Polymer/Solvent/Nonsolvent Ternary System,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3944–3950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kobidze, B. Shanker, and D. P. Nyquist, “Efficient integral-equation-based method for accurate analysis of scattering from periodically arranged nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, “Waveguiding in blazed-binary diffractive elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10), 2517–2520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. W. Prather, M. S. Mirotznik, and J. N. Mait, “Boundary integral methods applied to the analysis of diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 34–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Homogeneous layer models for high-spatial-frequency dielectric surface-relief gratings: conical diffraction and antireflection designs,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2695–2706 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection structured surfaces for the infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 32(7), 1154–1167 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Analysis of antireflection-structured surfaces with continuous one-dimensional surface profiles,” Appl. Opt. 32(14), 2582–2598 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, “High-spatial-frequency binary and multilevel stairstep gratings: polarization-selective mirrors and broadband antireflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4459–4470 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, and W. J. Gunning, “Antireflection surfaces in silicon using binary optics technology,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4371–4376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, and M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4562–4567 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50(8), 704–709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. J. Minot, “Single-layer, gradient refractive index antireflection films effective from 0.35 to 2.5 μ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(6), 515–519 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

S. F. Monaco, “Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(3), 280–282 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Arikawa, K.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50(8), 704–709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baird, W. E.

T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, and M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4562–4567 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bläsi, B.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(195407), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, C.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brundrett, D. L.

D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Homogeneous layer models for high-spatial-frequency dielectric surface-relief gratings: conical diffraction and antireflection designs,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2695–2706 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Döll, W.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dreibholz, J.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foletti, S.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Homogeneous layer models for high-spatial-frequency dielectric surface-relief gratings: conical diffraction and antireflection designs,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2695–2706 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, “High-spatial-frequency binary and multilevel stairstep gratings: polarization-selective mirrors and broadband antireflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4459–4470 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, and M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4562–4567 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glaubitt, W.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Homogeneous layer models for high-spatial-frequency dielectric surface-relief gratings: conical diffraction and antireflection designs,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2695–2706 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, “High-spatial-frequency binary and multilevel stairstep gratings: polarization-selective mirrors and broadband antireflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4459–4470 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guérineau, N.

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunning, W. J.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, and W. J. Gunning, “Antireflection surfaces in silicon using binary optics technology,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4371–4376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häberling, P.

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haïdar, R.

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hane, K.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzel, A.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hon, E. W.

B. G. Prevo, E. W. Hon, and O. D. Velev, “Assembly and characterization of colloid-based antireflective coatings on multicrystalline solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 791–799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, F.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. T.

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Antireflective structures via spin casting of polymer latex,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 575–577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaless, A.

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

M. S. Park, Y. Lee, and J. K. Kim, “One-Step Preparation of Antireflection Film by Spin Coating of Polymer/Solvent/Nonsolvent Ternary System,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3944–3950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobidze, G.

G. Kobidze, B. Shanker, and D. P. Nyquist, “Efficient integral-equation-based method for accurate analysis of scattering from periodically arranged nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, “Waveguiding in blazed-binary diffractive elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10), 2517–2520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

M. S. Park, Y. Lee, and J. K. Kim, “One-Step Preparation of Antireflection Film by Spin Coating of Polymer/Solvent/Nonsolvent Ternary System,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3944–3950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitel, R.

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linn, N. C.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

D. Van Orden and V. Lomakin, “Rapidly Convergent Representations for 2D and 3D Green's Functions for a Linear Periodic Array of Dipole Sources,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(7), 1973–1984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mait, J. N.

D. W. Prather, M. S. Mirotznik, and J. N. Mait, “Boundary integral methods applied to the analysis of diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 34–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.-L.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minot, M. J.

M. J. Minot, “Single-layer, gradient refractive index antireflection films effective from 0.35 to 2.5 μ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(6), 515–519 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mirotznik, M. S.

D. W. Prather, M. S. Mirotznik, and J. N. Mait, “Boundary integral methods applied to the analysis of diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 34–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moharam, M. G.

T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, and M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4562–4567 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monaco, S. F.

S. F. Monaco, “Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(3), 280–282 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection structured surfaces for the infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 32(7), 1154–1167 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Analysis of antireflection-structured surfaces with continuous one-dimensional surface profiles,” Appl. Opt. 32(14), 2582–2598 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, and W. J. Gunning, “Antireflection surfaces in silicon using binary optics technology,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4371–4376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munzert, P.

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyquist, D. P.

G. Kobidze, B. Shanker, and D. P. Nyquist, “Efficient integral-equation-based method for accurate analysis of scattering from periodically arranged nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palasantzas, G.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, M. S.

M. S. Park, Y. Lee, and J. K. Kim, “One-Step Preparation of Antireflection Film by Spin Coating of Polymer/Solvent/Nonsolvent Ternary System,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3944–3950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradarutti, B.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

D. W. Prather, M. S. Mirotznik, and J. N. Mait, “Boundary integral methods applied to the analysis of diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 34–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prevo, B. G.

B. G. Prevo, E. W. Hon, and O. D. Velev, “Assembly and characterization of colloid-based antireflective coatings on multicrystalline solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 791–799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Primot, J.

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raguin, D. H.

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection structured surfaces for the infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 32(7), 1154–1167 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Analysis of antireflection-structured surfaces with continuous one-dimensional surface profiles,” Appl. Opt. 32(14), 2582–2598 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riehemann, S.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, K.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäffer, E.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnieper, M.

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, U.

U. Schulz, “Wideband antireflection coatings by combining interference multilayers with structured top layers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8704–8708 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shanker, B.

G. Kobidze, B. Shanker, and D. P. Nyquist, “Efficient integral-equation-based method for accurate analysis of scattering from periodically arranged nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söchtig, J.

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(195407), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, “Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green’s function integral equation methods,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3448–3462 (2007) (b).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, and W. J. Gunning, “Antireflection surfaces in silicon using binary optics technology,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4371–4376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sporn, D.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stavenga, D. G.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinkopf, R.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenzel, O.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-H.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Orden, D.

D. Van Orden and V. Lomakin, “Rapidly Convergent Representations for 2D and 3D Green's Functions for a Linear Periodic Array of Dipole Sources,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(7), 1973–1984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Velev, O. D.

B. G. Prevo, E. W. Hon, and O. D. Velev, “Assembly and characterization of colloid-based antireflective coatings on multicrystalline solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 791–799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Velghe, S.

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, G.

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walheim, S.

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. Y.

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Antireflective structures via spin casting of polymer latex,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 575–577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendling, I.

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittwer, V.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

H. Jiang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Antireflective structures via spin casting of polymer latex,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 575–577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zschokke, C.

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50(8), 704–709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

D. L. Brundrett, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Homogeneous layer models for high-spatial-frequency dielectric surface-relief gratings: conical diffraction and antireflection designs,” Appl. Opt. 33(13), 2695–2706 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, and M. G. Moharam, “Zero-reflectivity high spatial-frequency rectangular-groove dielectric surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4562–4567 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, “High-spatial-frequency binary and multilevel stairstep gratings: polarization-selective mirrors and broadband antireflection surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4459–4470 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Motamedi, W. H. Southwell, and W. J. Gunning, “Antireflection surfaces in silicon using binary optics technology,” Appl. Opt. 31(22), 4371–4376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection structured surfaces for the infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 32(7), 1154–1167 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Analysis of antireflection-structured surfaces with continuous one-dimensional surface profiles,” Appl. Opt. 32(14), 2582–2598 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(231105), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. S. Park, Y. Lee, and J. K. Kim, “One-Step Preparation of Antireflection Film by Spin Coating of Polymer/Solvent/Nonsolvent Ternary System,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3944–3950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

D. Van Orden and V. Lomakin, “Rapidly Convergent Representations for 2D and 3D Green's Functions for a Linear Periodic Array of Dipole Sources,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 57(7), 1973–1984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

B. G. Prevo, E. W. Hon, and O. D. Velev, “Assembly and characterization of colloid-based antireflective coatings on multicrystalline solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 791–799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

S. F. Monaco, “Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51(3), 280–282 (1961).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Minot, “Single-layer, gradient refractive index antireflection films effective from 0.35 to 2.5 μ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(6), 515–519 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

D. W. Prather, M. S. Mirotznik, and J. N. Mait, “Boundary integral methods applied to the analysis of diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 34–43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, “Waveguiding in blazed-binary diffractive elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10), 2517–2520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

H. L. Chen, K. T. Huang, C. H. Lin, W. Y. Wang, and W. Fan, “Fabrication of sub-wavelength antireflective structures in solar cells by utilizing modified illumination and defocus techniques in optical lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 750–754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. David, P. Häberling, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, and C. Zschokke, “Nano-structured anti-reflective surfaces replicated by hot embossing,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-4), 435–440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Y. Wang, F. Hu, Y. Kanamori, T. Wu, and K. Hane, “Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5504–5511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brückner, B. Pradarutti, O. Stenzel, R. Steinkopf, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics,” Opt. Express 15(3), 779–789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schulz, “Wideband antireflection coatings by combining interference multilayers with structured top layers,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8704–8708 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, R. Leitel, I. Wendling, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Antireflection of transparent polymers by advanced plasma etching procedures,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13108–13113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haïdar, G. Vincent, N. Guérineau, S. Collin, S. Velghe, and J. Primot, “Wollaston prism-like devices based on blazed dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Express 13(25), 9941–9953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. Yu, and Y. Wang, “Antireflective structures via spin casting of polymer latex,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 575–577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(195407), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

G. Kobidze, B. Shanker, and D. P. Nyquist, “Efficient integral-equation-based method for accurate analysis of scattering from periodically arranged nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056702 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

T. Søndergaard, “Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green’s function integral equation methods,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(10), 3448–3462 (2007) (b).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Biol. Sci. (1)

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings, ” Science 283(5401), 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, “NANO-motheye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(1-4), 58–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, “Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 73–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes – architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Bäumer, ed., Handbook of Plastic Optics 2nd edition (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010).

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, Wiley, New York, 2nd ed., (2002).

M. V. Klein, and T. E. Furtak, Optics, second edition (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986).

L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge university press, New York 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Single-homogeneous thin-film antireflection coating. (b) Antireflecting ridge surface microstructure. (c) Tapered antireflection surface microstructure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection from the geometry in Fig. 1b in the case of wavelength 633 nm and normally incident (a) s- or (b) p-polarized light in the limit of period Λ = 0 and for period of Λ = 200 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Mode-index of the fundamental space-filling mode in the microstructured layer in Fig. 1b versus filling factor f for the wavelength 633 nm and s- and p-polarized light. (b) Optimum filling factor (resulting in optimum effective refractive index) vs. structure period calculated exactly (Eq. (7)) and with second-order effective medium theory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflection from the geometry in Fig. 1b in the case of wavelength 633 nm and normally incident (a) s- or (b) p-polarized light and period Λ = 400 nm for a range of filling factors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magnitude of electric field normalized with the incident field for a normally illuminated antireflection surface microstructuring with optimum filling factor and structure height for the chosen wavelength of λ = 633 nm. The geometry is shown in Fig. 1b. The period is Λ = 400 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission into the fundamental diffraction order and (b) reflection for light of wavelengths 633 nm, 532 nm or 473 nm, being normally incident on an antireflection microstructured surface equivalent to Fig. 1b with Λ = 400 nm and f = 0.5. (c) Magnitude of the electric field for λ = 532 nm and h = 530 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) 0-order transmission and (b) reflection for light of wavelength λ being normally incident on a 300nm-periodic tapered surface microstructuring (see Fig. 1c). (c) Electric field magnitude for the wavelength λ = 473nm and structure heights with minimum reflection.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The same as Fig. 7 except that light is s-polarized. In the field plot (c) the structure surface is marked with a dashed line.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Reflection and (b) 0-order transmission for p-polarized light with wavelength λ being normally incident on a 400nm-periodic linearly tapered surface microstructure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Total transmission into all transmission diffraction orders and transmission into the fundamental order for light of wavelength 473 nm being incident with angle of incidence θ on the structure of Fig. 1c for the period Λ = 300 nm. (a,b) s-polarization (c,d) p-polarization.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The same as Fig. 10 except that the wavelength is 633 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The same as Fig. 10 except that the wavelength is 532 nm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Transmission (into the fundamental order) for light of wavelength (a,b) 473 nm or (c,d) 633 nm being incident with angle of incidence θ on the structure of Fig. 1c for the period Λ = 200 nm.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Reflection and transmission of light with wavelength λ being normally incident on a 1D periodic surface structure (see inset) where the filling factor is quadratically varying with height. (a) s-polarized light. (b) p-polarized light.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r ) = E 0 ( r ) + 1 p e r i o d ( E ( s ' ) n ^ ' ' g 1 ( r , s ' ) g 1 ( r , s ' ) n ^ ' ' E 1 ( s ' ) ) d l ' ,
E ( r ) = 1 p e r i o d ( E ( s ' ) n ^ ' ' g 2 ( r , s ' ) g 2 ( r , s ' ) n ^ ' ' E ( s ' ) 1 ) d l ' ,
g 1 , 2 ( r , r ' ) = i 2 1 2 π e i k x ( x x ' ) n e i n G ( x x ' ) e i k y , n | y y ' | k y , n G ,
r = | r 13 + r 32 e 2 i k 0 n 3 h 1 + r 13 r 32 e 2 i k 0 n 3 h | 2 ,
n e f f , s = n 1 2 ( 1 f ) + n 2 2 f ,
n e f f , p = 1 / ( 1 f ) / n 1 2 + f / n 2 2 .
cos ( κ x 1 Λ f ) cos ( κ x 2 Λ ( 1 f ) ) 1 2 [ p m + 1 p m ] sin ( κ x 1 Λ f ) sin ( κ x 2 Λ ( 1 f ) ) = 1 ,

Metrics