Abstract

We use a combination of a scattering-type near-field infrared microscope with a free-electron laser as an intense, tunable radiation source to spatially and spectrally resolve buried doped layers in silicon. To this end, boron implanted stripes in silicon are raster scanned at different wavelengths in the range from 10 to 14 µm. An analysis based on a simple Drude model for the dielectric function of the sample yields quantitatively correct values for the concentration of the activated carriers. In a control experiment at the fixed wavelength of 10.6 µm, interferometric near-field signals are recorded. The phase information gained in this experiment is fully consistent with the carrier concentration obtained in the spectrally resolved experiments.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, “Infrared near-field imaging of implanted semiconductors: Evidence of a pure dielectric contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 575–577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Posselt, “Crystal-trim and its application to investigations on channeling effects during ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 130(1), 87–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Solmi, F. Baruffaldi, and R. Canteri, “Diffusion of boron in silicon during post-implantation annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(4), 2135–2142 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Algra, R. E.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armigliato, A.

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, “Infrared near-field imaging of implanted semiconductors: Evidence of a pure dielectric contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 575–577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baruffaldi, F.

S. Solmi, F. Baruffaldi, and R. Canteri, “Diffusion of boron in silicon during post-implantation annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(4), 2135–2142 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergner, A.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, “Infrared near-field imaging of implanted semiconductors: Evidence of a pure dielectric contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 575–577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bründermann, E.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buersgens, F.

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canteri, R.

S. Solmi, F. Baruffaldi, and R. Canteri, “Diffusion of boron in silicon during post-implantation annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(4), 2135–2142 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, M.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clarysse, T.

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cvitkovic, A.

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wolf, P.

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachenko, O.

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L. M.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzes, P.

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, “Infrared near-field imaging of implanted semiconductors: Evidence of a pure dielectric contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 575–577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, S.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hantschel, T.

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Härtling, T.

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Havenith, M.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecker, A.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kazantsev, D.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kehr, S. C.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kögler, R.

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lahrech, A.

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, “Infrared near-field imaging of implanted semiconductors: Evidence of a pure dielectric contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 575–577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landi, E.

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mieth, O.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ocelic, N.

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olk, P.

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posselt, M.

M. Posselt, “Crystal-trim and its application to investigations on channeling effects during ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 130(1), 87–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samson, J.-S.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, S.

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwaab, G.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, J.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solmi, S.

S. Solmi, F. Baruffaldi, and R. Canteri, “Diffusion of boron in silicon during post-implantation annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(4), 2135–2142 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, D.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, R.

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stiegler, J. M.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trenker, T.

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D. W.

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandervorst, W.

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Ribbeck, H.-G.

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, M. T.

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieck, A. D.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieser, E.

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wollny, G.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, “Infrared near-field imaging of implanted semiconductors: Evidence of a pure dielectric contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 575–577 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Infrared conductivity mapping for nanoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

E. Landi, A. Armigliato, S. Solmi, R. Kögler, and E. Wieser, “Electrical Activation of Boron-Implanted Silicon During Rapid Thermal Annealing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 359–366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Solmi, F. Baruffaldi, and R. Canteri, “Diffusion of boron in silicon during post-implantation annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(4), 2135–2142 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

P. De Wolf, R. Stephenson, T. Trenker, T. Clarysse, T. Hantschel, and W. Vandervorst, “Status and review of two-dimensional carrier and dopant profiling using scanning probe microscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 361–368 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Wenzel, T. Härtling, P. Olk, S. C. Kehr, S. Grafström, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and L. M. Eng, “Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12302–12312 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, E. Bründermann, A. Bergner, A. Hecker, G. Schwaab, A. D. Wieck, and M. Havenith, “Setup of a scanning near field infrared microscope (SNIM): imaging of sub-surface nano-structures in gallium-doped silicon,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 753–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids

M. Posselt, “Crystal-trim and its application to investigations on channeling effects during ion implantation,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 130(1), 87–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

Ch. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005).

D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor material and device characterization (John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical amplitude (s) and phase (ϕ) contrast calculated for the 3rd harmonic vs. carrier concentration in Si for λ = 10.6 µm. Reference is unimplanted Si with an impurity concentration of 1015 cm−3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated implantation profile for 30 keV-boron into n-silicon without annealing (dose: 6.8 × 1014 cm-2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase shift of the 3rd harmonic near-field signal, measured at 10.6 µm. The implanted silicon appears dark while the unimplanted region is bright. a) schematic side view – xz plane, b) optical phase image – xy plane, c) line profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field signal demodulated at the 3rd harmonic. The bright stripe represents the boron implanted silicon. The wavelength was changed from 13 µm at the right edge of the image to 11 µm at the left edge. The image is normalized to the signal of not implanted silicon. a) near-field image, b) line profile at 13 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field signal difference between implanted and unimplanted silicon as function of the wavelength, normalized to the incident power. The theoretical curves are obtained using the Drude model of Eq. (2) with different carrier concentrations.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E α t ( 1 + r p ) 2 1 α t β 16 π ( r + z ) 3 E i ,
ε s ( ω , N ) = ε ω p 2 ( N ) ω 2 + i ω γ ( N )
ω p 2 ( N ) = q 2 N m ε 0

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