Abstract

We present time-resolved cyclotron resonance spectra of holes in p-Ge measured during single magnetic field pulses by using a rapid-scanning, fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The key component of the system is a rotating monolithic delay line featuring four helicoid mirror surfaces. It allows measurements of THz spectra at up to 250 Hz repetition rate. Here we show results taken at 150 Hz. In a single 900 ms measurement 135 cyclotron resonance spectra were recorded that fully agree with what is expected from literature.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, and C. Kittel, "Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons and Holes in Silicon and Germanium Crystals," Phys. Rev. 98, 368-384 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Suzuki, and J. C. Hensel, "Quantum resonances in the valence bands of germanium," Phys. Rev. B 9, 4184-4218 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Miura, Physics of Semiconductors in High Magnetic Fields, (Oxford University Press, 2008).
  5. D. Some, and A. Nurmikko, "Real-time electron cyclotron oscillations observed by terahertz techniques in semiconductor heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377-3379 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).
  7. X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Crooker, "Fiber-coupled antennas for ultrafast coherent terahertz spectroscopy in low temperatures and high magnetic fields," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3258-3264 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Ellrich, D. Molter, T. Weinland, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, "200 Hz Rapid Scan Fiber-coupled Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy System," Proc. IEEE, IRMMW-THz 2008 (2008).
  10. Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

2004

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. A. Crooker, "Fiber-coupled antennas for ultrafast coherent terahertz spectroscopy in low temperatures and high magnetic fields," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3258-3264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Some, and A. Nurmikko, "Real-time electron cyclotron oscillations observed by terahertz techniques in semiconductor heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377-3379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1974

K. Suzuki, and J. C. Hensel, "Quantum resonances in the valence bands of germanium," Phys. Rev. B 9, 4184-4218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1955

G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, and C. Kittel, "Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons and Holes in Silicon and Germanium Crystals," Phys. Rev. 98, 368-384 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, L.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, S.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crooker, S. A.

S. A. Crooker, "Fiber-coupled antennas for ultrafast coherent terahertz spectroscopy in low temperatures and high magnetic fields," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3258-3264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dresselhaus, G.

G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, and C. Kittel, "Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons and Holes in Silicon and Germanium Crystals," Phys. Rev. 98, 368-384 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, F.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hensel, J. C.

K. Suzuki, and J. C. Hensel, "Quantum resonances in the valence bands of germanium," Phys. Rev. B 9, 4184-4218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, D. J.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

Inoue, M.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khodaparast, G. A.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kip, A. F.

G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, and C. Kittel, "Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons and Holes in Silicon and Germanium Crystals," Phys. Rev. 98, 368-384 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, and C. Kittel, "Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons and Holes in Silicon and Germanium Crystals," Phys. Rev. 98, 368-384 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Kono, J.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larrabee, D. C.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

Nakai, M.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, Y.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nurmikko, A.

D. Some, and A. Nurmikko, "Real-time electron cyclotron oscillations observed by terahertz techniques in semiconductor heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377-3379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rein, L.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

Reno, J. L.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

Ritchie, D.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, M. B.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasa, S.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Some, D.

D. Some, and A. Nurmikko, "Real-time electron cyclotron oscillations observed by terahertz techniques in semiconductor heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377-3379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, and J. C. Hensel, "Quantum resonances in the valence bands of germanium," Phys. Rev. B 9, 4184-4218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, Q.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Y. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Xing, F. Liu, Y. Li, L. Chai, Q. Wang, F. Fang, and X. Zhang, "Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror," Appl. Opt. 48, 1998-2005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Some, and A. Nurmikko, "Real-time electron cyclotron oscillations observed by terahertz techniques in semiconductor heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3377-3379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, J. L. Reno, D. M. Mittleman, and J. Kono, "Direct measurement of cyclotron coherence times of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases," Opt. Express 18, 12354-12361 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, L. Rein, D. M. Mittleman, J. Kono, and J. L. Reno, "Coherent THz Cyclotron Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2845 (2007).

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, F. K. Tittel, J. Kono, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, S. Chung, and M. B. Santos, "Application of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers to semiconductor cyclotron resonance," Opt. Lett. 29, 122-124 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev.

G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, and C. Kittel, "Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons and Holes in Silicon and Germanium Crystals," Phys. Rev. 98, 368-384 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

K. Suzuki, and J. C. Hensel, "Quantum resonances in the valence bands of germanium," Phys. Rev. B 9, 4184-4218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. A. Crooker, "Fiber-coupled antennas for ultrafast coherent terahertz spectroscopy in low temperatures and high magnetic fields," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3258-3264 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Ellrich, D. Molter, T. Weinland, M. Theuer, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, "200 Hz Rapid Scan Fiber-coupled Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy System," Proc. IEEE, IRMMW-THz 2008 (2008).

N. Miura, Physics of Semiconductors in High Magnetic Fields, (Oxford University Press, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup consisting of a commercial fiber laser, a highly efficient transmission grating stretcher, fiber coupling, and the delay line in the emitter arm. The sample is placed inside a helium cryostat inserted into a liquid nitrogen cooled high-field magnet coil. The THz emitter and detector heads are placed outside the cryostat to avoid interference from the high magnetic field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the delay line, featuring four helicoid mirror surfaces (two pairs of counter parts) wound around a cylinder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Exemplary single time trace of 900 ms duration showing a repetition rate of about 150 transients per second. The magnetic pulse is started by discharging a capacitor bench at about 175 ms after the start of the measurement. From this time, a varying envelope of the time-domain THz traces indicates the absorption caused by the cyclotron resonance. The dashed window marks the evaluated (Fourier transformed) time window of each transient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the magnet pulse start on the THz time-domain signal. An approx. 1 ms section is affected but does not interfere with the THz signal here.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulsed magnet field strength (top) and evolution of THz absorbance spectra of a p-Ge crystal (bottom, color scale bar right), obtained by Fourier transforming all data shown in Fig. 3. Two resonances are clearly seen sweeping through the measured 0.2 – 1.2 THz spectral range. A third, weak one in between can just be discerned. The low-frequency part below 200 GHz is grayed out because of a poor SNR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evaluated resonance frequency of light and heavy holes in dependence on the applied magnetic field, which is oriented along the [110] direction of the p-Ge crystal.

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