Abstract

We present an adaptive numerical filter for analyzing fiber-length dependent properties of optical rogue waves, which are highly intense and extremely red-shifted solitons that arise during supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber. We use this filter to study a data set of 1000 simulated supercontinuum pulses, produced from 5 ps pump pulses containing random noise. Optical rogue waves arise in different supercontinuum pulses at various positions along the fiber, and exhibit a lifecycle: their intensity peaks over a finite range of fiber length before declining slowly.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. M. Dudley, and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010)
  2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “Dispersion measurement in optical fibers using supercontinuum pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 820–824 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11385–11395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11385 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-6-3644 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2468–2470 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1234 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 653–657 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053803 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, San Diego, 2007).
  33. J. Hult, “A fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture method for simulating supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(12), 3770–3775 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. M. Heidt, “Efficient adaptive step size method for the simulation of supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 3984–3991 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6912–6918 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-18-6912 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman response function for silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3086–3088 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (9)

A. M. Heidt, “Efficient adaptive step size method for the simulation of supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 3984–3991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2468–2470 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
[CrossRef]

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-6-3644 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 653–657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, “A fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture method for simulating supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(12), 3770–3775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “Dispersion measurement in optical fibers using supercontinuum pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 820–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11385–11395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11385 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman response function for silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3086–3088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6912–6918 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-18-6912 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, A.

A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman response function for silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3086–3088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ania-Castanon, J. D.

S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dias, F.

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douay, M.

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2468–2470 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-6-3644 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-6-3644 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elder, A. D.

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingham, T. J.

S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
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M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2468–2470 (2009).
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K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
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C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
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J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
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G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
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A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1234 .
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
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M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2468–2470 (2009).
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C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
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J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-6-3644 .
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G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
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A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 653–657 (2007).
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A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053803 (2007).
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K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hancock, G.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
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T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
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A. M. Heidt, “Efficient adaptive step size method for the simulation of supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 3984–3991 (2009).
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T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
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Hult, J.

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
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C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
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J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
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J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11385–11395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11385 .
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J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “Dispersion measurement in optical fibers using supercontinuum pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 820–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, “A fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture method for simulating supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(12), 3770–3775 (2007).
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Hult, J. F.

R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
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D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
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D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
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Jeyasekharan, A. D.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
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Jones, R. L.

J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
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M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
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L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
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R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
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S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
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J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “Dispersion measurement in optical fibers using supercontinuum pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 820–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11385–11395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11385 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminski Schierle, G. S.

S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
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Knight, J. C.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
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S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
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S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6912–6918 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-18-6912 .
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Kolobov, M.

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
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A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
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Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudlinski, A.

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
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S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lafargue, C.

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langridge, J. M.

J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurila, T.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurila, T. K.

R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
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Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman response function for silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3086–3088 (2006).
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M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
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F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackenzie, S. R.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazurenka, M.

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Millot, G.

K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moggridge, G. D.

S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
[CrossRef]

Mussot, A.

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peverall, R.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
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J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
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L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
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S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
[CrossRef]

Schnippering, M.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwedler, S.

S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 653–657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, S.

S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S. V.

S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6912–6918 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-18-6912 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soto-Crespo, J.

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swartling, J.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taki, M.

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toivonen, J.

A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unwin, P. R.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van der Sneppen, L.

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Venkitaraman, A. R.

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watt, R. S.

R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11385–11395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11385 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “Dispersion measurement in optical fibers using supercontinuum pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 820–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, A. V.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

L. van der Sneppen, G. Hancock, C. F. Kaminski, T. Laurila, S. R. Mackenzie, S. R. T. Neil, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, M. Schnippering, and P. R. Unwin, “Following interfacial kinetics in real time using broadband evanescent wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a comparison of light-emitting diodes and supercontinuum sources,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(1), 133–139 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. F. Kaminski, R. S. Watt, A. D. Elder, J. H. Frank, and J. Hult, “Supercontinuum radiation for application in chemical sensing and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 367–378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Rare frustration of optical supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

R. S. Watt, T. K. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, and J. F. Hult, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy of high-temperature H(2)o in the near-infrared using a supercontinuum light source,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(12), 1389–1395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrochem. Commun. (1)

M. Schnippering, P. R. Unwin, J. Hult, T. Laurila, C. F. Kaminski, J. M. Langridge, R. L. Jones, M. Mazurenka, and S. R. Mackenzie, “Evanescent wave broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using supercontinuum radiation: A new probe of electrochemical processes,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(12), 1827–1830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue wave energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 217–218 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Hult, “A fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture method for simulating supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(12), 3770–3775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Heidt, “Efficient adaptive step size method for the simulation of supercontinuum generation in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 3984–3991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “Dispersion measurement in optical fibers using supercontinuum pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 820–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

J. H. Frank, A. D. Elder, J. Swartling, A. R. Venkitaraman, A. D. Jeyasekharan, and C. F. Kaminski, “A white light confocal microscope for spectrally resolved multidimensional imaging,” J. Microsc. 227(3), 203–215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

G. Genty, S. Coen, and J. M. Dudley, “Fiber supercontinuum sources (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1771–1785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 653–657 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

S. Schlachter, S. Schwedler, A. Esposito, G. S. Kaminski Schierle, G. D. Moggridge, and C. F. Kaminski, “A method to unmix multiple fluorophores in microscopy images with minimal a priori information,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22747–22760 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/VJBO/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-25-22747 .
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, R. S. Watt, and C. F. Kaminski, “High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11385–11395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11385 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10178–10188 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-14-10178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21497–21508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-24-21497 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kobtsev and S. V. Smirnov, “Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6912–6918 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-18-6912 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hammani, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, and G. Millot, “Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16467–16474 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16467 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OE-16-6-3644 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-19-17010 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-9844 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. Smirnov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, T. J. Ellingham, S. M. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical spectral broadening and supercontinuum generation in telecom applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 122–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2468–2470 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman response function for silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3086–3088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Taki, A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, and M. Douay, “Third-order dispersion for generating optical rogue solitons,” Phys. Lett. 374(4), 691–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

N. Akhmediev, J. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373(25), 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Phys. Lett. A 374(7), 989–996 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. V. Gorbach and D. V. Skryabin, “Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. M. Dudley, and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, San Diego, 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1529 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 1000 individual spectra (gray lines) at 26 m fiber length, the mean spectrum (black line), and the wavelength of a fixed cut-on filter (dotted line at 1237 nm). (b) Detail of the 1260 nm to 1320 nm range.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Histogram of numerically filtered peak powers. The inset shows the histogram on a log-log scale. (b) Average, maximum and minimum intra-pulse delay times of solitons in each power bin. The cut-on wavelength of the spectral filter was 1237 nm and the PCF length was 26 m. The peak powers and intra-pulse time delays of soliton A and B are 1027 W, 847 W, 24.5 ps and 29.6 ps, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal (left) and spectral (middle) evolution of three SC pulses over a 26 m long PCF, and the corresponding spectrograms (right) at 26 m, with dB scales. (a-c) An SC pulse close to the mean spectral distribution, (d-f) pulse containing a rogue soliton, and (g-i) a pulse containing a rogue soliton that separates from its pulse at an earlier fiber position (dashed lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mean spectrum of 1000 supercontinuum simulations, and the −10 dB, −15 dB and −20 dB edges along a 35 m fiber. (b) Plot showing determination of the −15 dB cut-on wavelength by the intersection of the −15 dB surface with surface of the mean spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Adaptive spectral filtering identifies L-shaped intensity histograms over a wide range of positions along the fiber. (b) The filter permits easy identification of rogue solitons, which appear as rapid intensity rises at certain fiber positions. (c) The corresponding unfiltered properties of the same rogue solitons can also be tracked. Sharp peaks are seen on these traces, identifying soliton collision events. It is seen that RS formed, arise quickly in time, but decline slowly. These properties are also presented dynamically (Media 1).

Equations (1)

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A z k 0 i k + 1 k ! β k k A T k = i γ ( 1 + i τ s h o c k T ) ( A ( z , T ) + R ( t ' ) | A ( z , T t ' ) | 2 d t ' )

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