Abstract

We demonstrate 2.6 µm mid-infrared lasing at room temperature in a planar waveguide structure. Planar waveguides were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) by depositing chromium doped zinc selenide thin films on sapphire substrate (Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire). Highly doped Cr2+:ZnSe/Sapphire thin film sample was also used to demonstrate passive Q-switching of Er:YAG laser operating at 1.645 µm.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, P. A. Berry, and K. L. Schepler, “12-Watt CW polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe laser pumped by Tm-fiber laser,” in Advance Solid-State Photonics, on CD-ROM (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2009).
  10. V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).
  14. N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).
  15. A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. Madelung, U. Rossler, and W. V. Osten, “Intristic properties of group IV elements and III-V, II-VI and II-VI compounds,” in Landolt-Bornstein: Numerical data and functional relationships in science and technology, H. Landolt, and R. Bornstein (Springer, 1987).
  19. J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. T. Sorokina, “Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for laser and nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 395–412 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

I. T. Sorokina, “Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for laser and nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 395–412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

1984

A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allman, J.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Badikov, D. V.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bardou, N.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, A.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caes, M.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caldas, M. J.

A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Camata, R. P.

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, K.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. T.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chomyak, A. Ya.

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

Collin, S.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deloach, L. D.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demirbas, U.

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denisova, Z. L.

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

Dianov, E. M.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fazzio, A.

A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. V.

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feth, S.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, M. P.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallian, A.

V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haidar, R.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, A. E.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jaeck, J.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazakov, I. P.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kernal, J.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kononets, Ya. F.

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

Korostelin, Y. V.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, V. I.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurt, A.

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landman, A. I.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemasson, P.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levalois, M.

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luc Pelouard, J.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martyshkin, D.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martyshkin, D. V.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S. B.

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morales, M.

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. H.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moskalev, I.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moskalev, I. S.

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukhlyo, M. O.

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
[CrossRef]

Ndap, J. O.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oleksenko, P. F.

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, F. D.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Podmar’kov, Y. P.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rablau, C. I.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riskin, A. I.

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

Roberts, S.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffers, K. I.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Somer, M.

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorokina, I. T.

I. T. Sorokina, “Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for laser and nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 395–412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. H.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tauvy, M.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsyrkunov, Yu. A.

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

Vallin, J. T.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, A. V.

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

Veligura, L. I.

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

Vivet, N.

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasenko, N. A.

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

Voronov, V. A.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G. J.

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, G. D.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. E.

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zabezhaylov, A. O.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zunger, A.

A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM images of (a) 50 × 50 μm scan area and (b) 5 × 5 μm scan area of a 10 μm thick Cr2+:ZnSe film deposited on sapphire. The surface areas RMS roughness was smaller than 10 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) θ-2θ XRD patterns and (b) Raman spectra of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited on sapphire substrate at various growth temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transmission spectrum of a 7.5 µm thick Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire sample with Cr2+ concentration of ~6 × 1019 cm−3 deposited at 400 C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized room temperature PL spectra measured from Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire films with various dopant concentrations deposited at a substrate temperature of 475 οC. (b) Emission spectra measured (i) below and (ii) above laser threshold from Cr2+:ZnSe film of Cr2+ concentration of 6 × 1019 cm−3 deposited on sapphire substrate.(iii) Gain (in arbitrary units) and (iv) absorption (in cm−1) spectra of Cr2+:ZnSe with Cr2+ concentration of 6 × 1019 cm−3 from Ref [22]. (c) The output-input signal characteristics of the Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire film deposited which depicts a lasing threshold energy density of approximately 0.11 J/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The optical scheme used for the laser experiments. (b) Comparative Er:YAG input-output laser characteristics in Cr2+:ZnSe thin film Q-switched regime with (i) output coupler reflectivity R = 80%, (ii) R = 95%, and (iii) free running (R = 80%) regimes of operation. (c) The output pulses from passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser at pump power of 1.5 W with 95% output coupler.

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