Abstract

Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laser-plasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing single and crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first scheme allowing for this important application based on an all-optical set-up.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, "Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1629-1631 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal, "Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra intense lasers," Science 300, 1107-1111 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. "LHC-The Large Hadron Collider," http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/.
  6. "The Extreme Light Infrastructure European Project (ELI). Scientific Case," (2007). http://www. extreme-light-infrastructure.eu/pictures/ELI-scientific-case-id17.pdf.
  7. "High Power Laser Energy Research (HiPER). HiPER technical background and conceptual design report," http://www.hiperlaser.org/docs/tdr/HiPERTDR2.pdf.
  8. M. Dunne, "Laser-driven particle accelerators," Science 312, 374-376 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Badziak, "Laser-driven generation of fast particles," Opto-Electron. Review 15, 1-12 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. M. Haaland, "Laser electron acceleration in vacuum," Opt. Commun. 114, 280-284 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, and J. Krall, "Laser acceleration of electrons in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52, 5443-5453 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. I. Salamin, and C. H. Keitel, "Subcycle high electron acceleration by crossed laser beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1082-1084 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).
  19. S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. I. Salamin, "Fields of a Gaussian beam beyond paraxial approximation," Appl. Phys. B 86, 319-326 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. I. Salamin, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, "Direct high-power laser acceleration of ions for medical applications," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155004 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (John Wiley & Sons, 1999), 3rd ed.
  25. X. Jaén, J. Llosa, and A. Molina, "A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians," Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 34, 2302-2311 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Eickhoff, D. Böhne, T. Haberer, B. Schlitt, P. Spiller, J. Debus, and A. Dolinskii, "HIT-Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy. Scientific Case." http://www-aix.gsi.de/˜spiller/facilit_ep00.ps.
  28. "HIT-Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy. Facts in short." http://www.klinikum.uni-heidelberg.de/HIT-Facts-in-short.117995.0.html?&L=en.
  29. E. Gerstner, "Laser physics: extreme light," Nature 446, 16-18 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. I. Salamin, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, "Direct high-power laser acceleration of ions for medical applications," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

E. Gerstner, "Laser physics: extreme light," Nature 446, 16-18 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Salamin, "Fields of a Gaussian beam beyond paraxial approximation," Appl. Phys. B 86, 319-326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Badziak, "Laser-driven generation of fast particles," Opto-Electron. Review 15, 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Dunne, "Laser-driven particle accelerators," Science 312, 374-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, "Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1629-1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal, "Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra intense lasers," Science 300, 1107-1111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Y. I. Salamin, and C. H. Keitel, "Subcycle high electron acceleration by crossed laser beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1082-1084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. M. Haaland, "Laser electron acceleration in vacuum," Opt. Commun. 114, 280-284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, and J. Krall, "Laser acceleration of electrons in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52, 5443-5453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

X. Jaén, J. Llosa, and A. Molina, "A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians," Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 34, 2302-2311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Aleonard, M.-M.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amthor, K.-U.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antici, P.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Audebert, P.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badziak, J.

J. Badziak, "Laser-driven generation of fast particles," Opto-Electron. Review 15, 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bahk, S.-W.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, "Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1629-1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, M.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambrink, E.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgy, F.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, H.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cecchetti, C. A.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chambaret, J.-P.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemin, J.-F.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chvykov, V.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R. J.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Combs, S. E.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d’Humières, E.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dangor, A. E.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debus, J.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunne, M.

M. Dunne, "Laser-driven particle accelerators," Science 312, 374-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, and J. Krall, "Laser acceleration of electrons in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52, 5443-5453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esirkepov, T.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fritzler, S.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, J.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fülöp, J. A.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Gerstner, E.

E. Gerstner, "Laser physics: extreme light," Nature 446, 16-18 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haaland, C. M.

C. M. Haaland, "Laser electron acceleration in vacuum," Opt. Commun. 114, 280-284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haberer, T.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harman, Z.

Y. I. Salamin, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, "Direct high-power laser acceleration of ions for medical applications," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatchett, S.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, J.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Henig, A.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Ho, Y. K.

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hörlein, R.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Hua, J. F.

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huber, P. E.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaén, X.

X. Jaén, J. Llosa, and A. Molina, "A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians," Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 34, 2302-2311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jäkel, O.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalintchenko, G.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaluza, M.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karger, C. P.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karsch, S.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Keitel, C. H.

Y. I. Salamin, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, "Direct high-power laser acceleration of ions for medical applications," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Salamin, and C. H. Keitel, "Subcycle high electron acceleration by crossed laser beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1082-1084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingebiel, S.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Kong, Q.

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krall, J.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, and J. Krall, "Laser acceleration of electrons in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52, 5443-5453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, M.

O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Kruber, S.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Krushelnick, K.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal, "Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra intense lasers," Science 300, 1107-1111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefebvre, E.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liesfeld, B.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindau, F.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Llosa, J.

X. Jaén, J. Llosa, and A. Molina, "A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians," Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 34, 2302-2311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lundh, O.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mackinnon, A. J.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Major, Z.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Maksimchuk, A.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malka, G.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malka, V.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manclossi, M.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mangles, S. P. D.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCanny, T.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, P.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal, "Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra intense lasers," Science 300, 1107-1111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyroneinc, S.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Molina, A.

X. Jaén, J. Llosa, and A. Molina, "A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians," Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 34, 2302-2311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Münter, M. W.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Najmudin, Z.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nikoghosyan, A.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterhoff, J.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Patel, P. K.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pervak, V.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Pfotenhauer, S.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, M.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planchon, T. A.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Robson, L.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, J.-P.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousseau, P.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salamin, Y. I.

Y. I. Salamin, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, "Direct high-power laser acceleration of ions for medical applications," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Salamin, "Fields of a Gaussian beam beyond paraxial approximation," Appl. Phys. B 86, 319-326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Salamin, and C. H. Keitel, "Subcycle high electron acceleration by crossed laser beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1082-1084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheid, W.

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheurer, J.-N.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiavi, A.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, J.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulz-Ertner, D.

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwoerer, H.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siebold, M.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Simpson, P. T.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singhal, R. P.

K. W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal, "Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra intense lasers," Science 300, 1107-1111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snavely, R.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprangle, P.

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, and J. Krall, "Laser acceleration of electrons in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52, 5443-5453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stupakov, G. V.

G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toncian, T.

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trushin, S.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

van Kan, J. A.

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, "Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1629-1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C.-G.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walton, B.

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wandt, C.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Wang, J. X.

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. X.

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-J.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Watt, F.

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, "Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1629-1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weingartner, R.

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Wilks, S. C.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willi, O.

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. S.

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zepf, M.

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, W.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotorev, M. S.

G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

Y. I. Salamin, "Fields of a Gaussian beam beyond paraxial approximation," Appl. Phys. B 86, 319-326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yan, Y. K. Ho, P. X. Wang, J. F. Hua, Z. Chen, and L. Wu, "Accurate description of ultra-short tightly focused Gaussian laser pulses and vacuum laser acceleration," Appl. Phys. B 81, 813-819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, "Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1629-1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Salamin, and C. H. Keitel, "Subcycle high electron acceleration by crossed laser beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1082-1084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cancer (1)

S. E. Combs, A. Nikoghosyan, O. Jäkel, C. P. Karger, T. Haberer, M. W. Münter, P. E. Huber, J. Debus, and D. Schulz-Ertner, "Carbon ion radiotherapy for pediatric patients and young adults treated for tumors of the skull base," Cancer 115, 1348-1355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (2)

J. Fuchs, P. Antici, E. d’Humières, E. Lefebvre, M. Borghesi, E. Brambrink, C. A. Cecchetti, M. Kaluza, V. Malka, M. Manclossi, S. Meyroneinc, P. Mora, J. Schreiber, T. Toncian, H. Pépin, and P. Audebert, "Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase," Nat. Phys. 2, 48-54 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Robson, P. T. Simpson, R. J. Clarke, K. W. D. Ledingham, F. Lindau, O. Lundh, T. McCanny, P. Mora, D. Neely, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, and P. McKenna, "Scaling of proton acceleration driven by petawatt-laserplasma interactions," Nat. Phys. 3, 58-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäkel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-448 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gerstner, "Laser physics: extreme light," Nature 446, 16-18 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. M. Haaland, "Laser electron acceleration in vacuum," Opt. Commun. 114, 280-284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

S.-W. Bahk, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opto-Electron. Review (1)

J. Badziak, "Laser-driven generation of fast particles," Opto-Electron. Review 15, 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

O. Jäkel, M. Krämer, C. P. Karger, and J. Debus, "Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1101-1116 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields (1)

X. Jaén, J. Llosa, and A. Molina, "A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians," Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 34, 2302-2311 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (2)

J. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, L. Feng, Q. Kong, P. X. Wang, Z. S. Yuan, and W. Scheid, "High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60, 7473-7478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Esarey, P. Sprangle, and J. Krall, "Laser acceleration of electrons in vacuum," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52, 5443-5453 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Salamin, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, "Direct high-power laser acceleration of ions for medical applications," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Stupakov, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

M. Dunne, "Laser-driven particle accelerators," Science 312, 374-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Malka, S. Fritzler, E. Lefebvre, M.-M. Aleonard, F. Burgy, J.-P. Chambaret, J.-F. Chemin, K. Krushelnick, G. Malka, S. P. D. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, M. Pittman, J.-P. Rousseau, J.-N. Scheurer, B. Walton, and A. E. Dangor, "Electron acceleration by a wake field forced by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Science 298, 1596-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. D. Ledingham, P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal, "Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra intense lasers," Science 300, 1107-1111 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Review of Laser Engineering (1)

Z. Major, S. Trushin, I. Ahmad, M. Siebold, C. Wandt, S. Klingebiel, T.-J. Wang, J. A. Fülöp, A. Henig, S. Kruber, R. Weingartner, A. Popp, J. Osterhoff, R. Hörlein, J. Hein, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and S. Karsch, "Basic concepts and current status of the petawatt field synthesizer - a new approach to ultrahigh field generation," The Review of Laser Engineering 37, 431-436 (2009).

Other (6)

"LHC-The Large Hadron Collider," http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/.

"The Extreme Light Infrastructure European Project (ELI). Scientific Case," (2007). http://www. extreme-light-infrastructure.eu/pictures/ELI-scientific-case-id17.pdf.

"High Power Laser Energy Research (HiPER). HiPER technical background and conceptual design report," http://www.hiperlaser.org/docs/tdr/HiPERTDR2.pdf.

H. Eickhoff, D. Böhne, T. Haberer, B. Schlitt, P. Spiller, J. Debus, and A. Dolinskii, "HIT-Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy. Scientific Case." http://www-aix.gsi.de/˜spiller/facilit_ep00.ps.

"HIT-Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy. Facts in short." http://www.klinikum.uni-heidelberg.de/HIT-Facts-in-short.117995.0.html?&L=en.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (John Wiley & Sons, 1999), 3rd ed.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) The protons, produced by laser-plasma interaction, are injected with the angle θi with respect to the propagation direction of a pulsed beam through its focus. The laser field polarization is denoted by E and the propagation direction is given by k. The protons are ejected out of the focus in the polarization direction E. (b) Here, the protons are injected through the intersection point of two pulsed beams with crossing half-angle θ. The laser field polarizations are denoted by E1 and E2 and their propagation directions are given by k1 and k2. The protons are ejected in direction of the resulting electric field E.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Intensity profile of two crossed Gaussian beams in the propagation plane y = 0. For visualization purpose the crossing-half angle is set to θ = 35°. The brighter areas correspond to higher field intensities. (b) Vector field plot of the polarization plane z = 0 at t = 0.2 fs for the single beam scheme (blue arrows) with power P and crossed beam scheme (red arrows) with power P/2 for each beam. The constructive interference of the crossed beams results in a higher electric field strength in the intersection volume. The background of the graph shows a density map of the electric field strength |E| of two crossed beams in the polarization plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Kinetic energy K for one proton initially being at rest and located at x = z = λ/30 and y = 0. The initial time is ti = 0 (dashed line) and ti = −10Δt (full line). The single proton dynamics is compared at same laser parameters.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average particle kinetic energy and its percentual spread for different laser system parameters. Ni = ni · Vfocus is the number of ions one can accelerate as one bunch with n i S LPA 10 21 cm 3 and n i TNSA 10 19 cm 3 is the ion density of the source used and Vfocus denotes the volume initially containing all ions. The crossing half-angle is θ = 3°. The optimal particle injection angle for the single beam set-up is θi = 3° for the S-LPA source and θi = 50° in case of the TNSA source, respectively. For two crossed beams the particles are injected with an angle θc with respect to the symmetry axis (z-axis) of the laser beam configuration. In case of the S-LPA source we have θc = 0° and for the TNSA source θc = 50°.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E exp ( ( t z / c ) 2 2 Δ t 2 ) E , B exp ( ( t z / c ) 2 2 Δ t 2 ) B ,
d p j d t = q ( E ( r j ) + E j int . + c β j × ( B ( r j ) + B j int . ) ) , d j d t = qc β j ( E ( r j ) + E j int . ) .
ϕ j k = q 4 π ɛ 0 1 | r j r k | ,
A j k = q 8 π ɛ 0 c 2 | r j k | ( v k + r j k ( v k r j k ) | r j k | ) ,
E x = ( E 1 x + E 2 x ) cos θ + ( E 1 z E 2 z ) sin θ , E y = E 1 y + E 2 y , E z = ( E 1 x + E 2 x ) sin θ + ( E 1 z + E 2 z ) cos θ , B x = ( B 1 z B 2 z ) sin θ , B y = B 1 y + B 2 y , B z = ( B 1 z + B 2 z ) cos θ .

Metrics