Abstract

By complexion of donor and acceptor using ionic interactions, the enhanced nonlinear optical responses of donor-acceptor ionic complexes in aqueous solution were studied with 7-ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The optical limiting performance of negatively charged gold nanoparticles or graphene oxide (Acceptor) was shown to be improved significantly when they were mixed with water-soluble, positively-charged porphyrin (Donor) derivative. In contrast, no enhancement was observed when mixing with negatively-charged porphyrin. Transient absorption studies of the donor-acceptor complexes confirmed that the addition of energy transfer pathway were responsible for excited-state deactivation, which results in the observed enhancement. Fluence, angle-dependent scattering and time correlated single photon counting measurements suggested that the enhanced nonlinear scattering due to faster nonradiative decay should play a major role in the enhanced optical limiting responses.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
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  7. Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
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  8. C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Polavarapu, Q.-H. Xu, M. S. Dhoni, and W. Ji, “Optical limiting properties of silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 108(4), 1245–1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Mhuircheartaigh, S. Giordani, and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear optical characterization of a tetraphenylporphyrin-carbon nanotube composite system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23136–23141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, T. K.

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aida, T.

M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anglaret, E.

N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimura, M.

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balaban, T. S.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becerril, H. A.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bedworth, P. V.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhise, A. D.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billaud, P.

N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

E. M. Mhuircheartaigh, S. Giordani, and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear optical characterization of a tetraphenylporphyrin-carbon nanotube composite system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23136–23141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. Z.

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M. S.

M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, P.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delaire, J.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dentan, V.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dhoni, M. S.

L. Polavarapu, Q.-H. Xu, M. S. Dhoni, and W. Ji, “Optical limiting properties of silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, B.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Endo, Y.

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C. H.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feneyrou, P.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y. P.

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuzumi, S.

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordani, S.

E. M. Mhuircheartaigh, S. Giordani, and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear optical characterization of a tetraphenylporphyrin-carbon nanotube composite system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23136–23141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Q. H.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guduru, R.

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. K.

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 108(4), 1245–1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J. W.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hor, T. S. A.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Imahori, H.

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izard, N.

N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Polavarapu, Q.-H. Xu, M. S. Dhoni, and W. Ji, “Optical limiting properties of silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X. L.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jouanin, I.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, R.

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, Y.

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. Y. S.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linke-Schaetzel, M.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. L.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. F.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mhuircheartaigh, E. M.

E. M. Mhuircheartaigh, S. Giordani, and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear optical characterization of a tetraphenylporphyrin-carbon nanotube composite system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23136–23141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mi, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michaut, C.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, Y.

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, H.

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Plaxco, K. W.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polavarapu, L.

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Polavarapu, Q.-H. Xu, M. S. Dhoni, and W. Ji, “Optical limiting properties of silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. A. N.

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 108(4), 1245–1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, D. M.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riehl, D.

N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riggs, J. E.

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robin, P.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, H. W.

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roussel, C.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakata, Y.

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sariciftci, N. S.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, L.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoltenberg, R. M.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. P.

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. L.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 108(4), 1245–1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K. L.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vanthuyne, N.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkatram, N.

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wudl, F.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F. M.

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.-H.

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Polavarapu, Q.-H. Xu, M. S. Dhoni, and W. Ji, “Optical limiting properties of silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. F.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, I.

M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, T.

M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. Y.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 108(4), 1245–1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Q. D.

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces

L. Polavarapu, N. Venkatram, W. Ji, and Q.-H. Xu, “Optical-limiting properties of oleylamine-capped gold nanoparticles for both femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(10), 2298–2303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. D. Zheng, S. K. Gupta, G. S. He, L. S. Tan, and P. A. N. Prasad, “Synthesis, Characterization, Two-Photon Absorption, and Optical Limiting Properties of Ladder-Type Oligo-p-phenylene-Cored Chromophores,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2770–2779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, T. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, H. Yan, and P. Cui, “Nanosecond optical limiting property of a novel octanuclear silver cluster complex containing arylselenolate ligands,” Adv. Mater. 13(22), 1687–1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A Graphene Hybrid Material Covalently Functionalized with Porphyrin: Synthesis and Optical Limiting Property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

T. S. Balaban, A. D. Bhise, M. Fischer, M. Linke-Schaetzel, C. Roussel, and N. Vanthuyne, “Controlling chirality and optical properties of artificial antenna systems with self-assembling porphyrins,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(19), 2140–2144 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Choi, T. Yamazaki, I. Yamazaki, and T. Aida, “Bioinspired molecular design of light-harvesting multiporphyrin arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(2), 150–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Pan, W. Z. Chen, Y. P. Feng, W. Ji, and J. Y. Lin, “Optical limiting properties of metal nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 223106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Polavarapu, Q.-H. Xu, M. S. Dhoni, and W. Ji, “Optical limiting properties of silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

B. Dupuis, C. Michaut, I. Jouanin, J. Delaire, P. Robin, P. Feneyrou, and V. Dentan, “Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer systems based on porphyrin-viologen dyads for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 300(1-2), 169–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

G. S. He, L. S. Tan, Q. Zheng, and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton absorbing materials: molecular designs, characterizations, and applications,” Chem. Rev. 108(4), 1245–1330 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

H. Imahori, M. Arimura, T. Hanada, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, Y. Sakata, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(2), 335–336 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yamada, H. Imahori, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, T. K. Ahn, S. K. Kim, D. Kim, and S. Fukuzumi, “Photovoltaic properties of self-assembled monolayers of porphyrins and porphyrin-fullerene dyads on ITO and gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(30), 9129–9139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

H. Imahori, Y. Kashiwagi, T. Hanada, Y. Endo, Y. Nishimura, I. Yamazaki, and S. Fukuzumi, “Metal and size effects on structures and photophysical properties of porphyrin-modified metal nanoclusters,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(12), 2890–2898 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, F. Du, D. M. Ren, Y. S. Chen, J. Y. Zheng, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Covalently porphyrin-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel photoactive and optical limiting donor-acceptor nanohybrid,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(29), 3021–3030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

Y. P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, H. W. Rollins, and R. Guduru, “Strong optical limiting of silver-containing nanocrystalline particles in stable suspensions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(1), 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Mhuircheartaigh, S. Giordani, and W. J. Blau, “Linear and nonlinear optical characterization of a tetraphenylporphyrin-carbon nanotube composite system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(46), 23136–23141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C-60 and C-70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

N. Izard, P. Billaud, D. Riehl, and E. Anglaret, “Influence of structure on the optical limiting properties of nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1509–1511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. M. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, and R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23(22), 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. H. Fan, S. Wang, J. W. Hong, G. C. Bazan, K. W. Plaxco, and A. J. Heeger, “Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(11), 6297–6301 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV-Vis-NIR spectra of (a) P+, P-, Au, Au + P+ and Au + P- (b) P+, P-, GO, GO + P+ and GO + P- complexes in water solution. The insets show (a) TEM image of Au NPs and (b) AFM image of GO.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structure of TMPyP (P+). (b) Chemical structure of T790 (P-). (c) Schematic representation of Au + P+ complex. (d) Schematic representation of GO + P+ complex.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra of (a) P+, P-, Au + P+ and Au + P- (b) P+, P-, GO + P+ and GO + P- complexes in water solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence decays of (a) P+, Au + P+ and GO + P+; and (b) P-, Au + P-and GO + P- complexes in water solution. The instrument response function (IRF) is shown above as unlabelled violet color trace

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transient absorption spectra of P+, Au + P+ and GO + P+ in water solution collected at 1ns after 400-nm femtosecond laser excitation.(a) P+, (b) Au + P+ and (c) GO + P+ complexes. Inset shows the decay dynamics of P+, Au + P+ and GO + P+ at a probe wavelength of 465 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluence-dependent transmittance measured for (a) Au, P+, P-, Au + P+ and Au + P-; and (b) GO, P+, P-, GO + P+ and GO + P- complexes in water solution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scattered light measured for (a) Au, P+, P-, Au + P+ and Au + P-(b) GO, P+, P-, GO + P+ and GO + P- complexes in water solution at an angle of 20°. Inset of (a) and (b) are the polar plots of the scattering signal as a function of the angular position of the detector.

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