Abstract

Based on a coupled simulation of carrier transport and optical cavity field, the intrinsic linewidth in resonant phonon terahertz quantum cascade lasers is self-consistently analyzed. For high power structures, values on the order of Hz are obtained. Thermal photons are found to play a considerable role at elevated temperatures. A linewidth enhancement factor of 0.5 is calculated for the investigated designs.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Jirauschek, "Monte Carlo study of carrier-light coupling in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Jirauschek, "Accuracy of transfer matrix approaches for solving the effective mass Schrödinger equation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1059-1067 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Jirauschek, and P. Lugli, "Monte-Carlo-based spectral gain analysis for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Jirauschek, A. Matyas, and P. Lugli, "Modeling bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers: The role of Coulomb interactions," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Grau, and W. Freude, Optische Nachrichtentechnik - Eine Einführung (Springer, 1991).
  16. H. Haug, and H. Haken, "Theory of noise in semiconductor laser emission," Z. Phys. 204, 262-275 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, "Monte Carlo study of carrier-light coupling in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, A. Matyas, and P. Lugli, "Modeling bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers: The role of Coulomb interactions," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Jirauschek, "Accuracy of transfer matrix approaches for solving the effective mass Schrödinger equation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1059-1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, and P. Lugli, "Monte-Carlo-based spectral gain analysis for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1967

H. Haug, and H. Haken, "Theory of noise in semiconductor laser emission," Z. Phys. 204, 262-275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akikusa, N.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, A.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartalini, S.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Castrillo, A.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coulombe, M. J.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danylov, A. A.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Natale, P.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, L.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edamura, T.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galli, I.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R. H.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliani, G.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyette, T. M.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, U. U.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haken, H.

H. Haug, and H. Haken, "Theory of noise in semiconductor laser emission," Z. Phys. 204, 262-275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

H. Haug, and H. Haken, "Theory of noise in semiconductor laser emission," Z. Phys. 204, 262-275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C.

C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubers, H.

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jirauschek, C.

C. Jirauschek, "Monte Carlo study of carrier-light coupling in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, A. Matyas, and P. Lugli, "Modeling bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers: The role of Coulomb interactions," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, "Accuracy of transfer matrix approaches for solving the effective mass Schrödinger equation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1059-1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, and P. Lugli, "Monte-Carlo-based spectral gain analysis for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasalynas, I.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, T. O.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugli, P.

C. Jirauschek, A. Matyas, and P. Lugli, "Modeling bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers: The role of Coulomb interactions," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, and P. Lugli, "Monte-Carlo-based spectral gain analysis for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matyas, A.

C. Jirauschek, A. Matyas, and P. Lugli, "Modeling bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers: The role of Coulomb interactions," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nixon, W. E.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlov, S. G.

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philipp, M.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, X.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabanus, D.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricken, O.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semenov, A. D.

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, P. H.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, J.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vowinkel, B.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldman, J.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, C.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiedner, M. C.

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, "Monte Carlo study of carrier-light coupling in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Green, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, "Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 12-29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, "Accuracy of transfer matrix approaches for solving the effective mass Schrödinger equation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1059-1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Jirauschek, and P. Lugli, "Monte-Carlo-based spectral gain analysis for terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jirauschek, A. Matyas, and P. Lugli, "Modeling bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers: The role of Coulomb interactions," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser," Nat. Photonics 4, 636-640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, "Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level," Opt. Express 17, 7525-7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 15 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2840-2842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. de Natale, "Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

H. Haug, and H. Haken, "Theory of noise in semiconductor laser emission," Z. Phys. 204, 262-275 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Grau, and W. Freude, Optische Nachrichtentechnik - Eine Einführung (Springer, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Susceptibility χ vs frequency f = ω/(2π) for internal powers of 145, 160 and 175mW, corresponding to N = 1.01 × 109, 1.11 × 109, and 1.21 × 109, respectively. (b) Intrinsic linewidth as a function of temperature without and with thermal photons included.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( n 0 / c ) t N = ( Γ g a ) N + Γ g n sp + a n th ,
g ± ( ω ) = π Z 0 ω V n 0 ħ n , j ± E i n j > 0 ( 1 f j k n ) | d i n j | 2 i n j ( ω ) .
i n j ( ω ) = { 1 π 1 ω | ω i n j | + i γ i n j } = 1 π γ i n j γ i n j 2 + ( ω | ω i n j | ) 2
I N ( ω ) = ( Γ N / V g ) ħ ω c / n 0 .
r i j sp = π Z 0 n 0 ħ 2 | d i j | 2 ( 1 f j k ) m I N = 1 ( ω m ) i j ( ω m )
δ f = ( 4 π ) 1 K ( 1 + α 2 ) t N | sp N 1 = ( 4 π ) 1 K ( 1 + α 2 ) γ n sp N 1 ,
δ f = ( 4 π ) 1 ( 1 + α 2 ) γ ( n sp + n th ) N 1 .
δ f = ( 4 π ) 1 ( 1 + α 2 ) γ [ n sp + ( 1 + n sp ) n th ] N 1 .
K H = [ ( R 1 + R 2 ) ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) R 1 R 2 ln ( R 1 R 2 ) ] 2 ,
α = N { χ ( ω L ) } N { χ ( ω L ) } = N { g c ( ω L ) } N { g c ( ω L ) } .

Metrics