Abstract

We investigate the impact of channel spacing and nonlinear transmission over 120 km of standard single mode fiber for a 10 Gbit/s long-reach wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON). We employed polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK), which allowed data transmission at 3.125 GBaud, including a 25% overhead for forward error correction. To receive this spectrally efficient modulation format, a digital coherent receiver was employed, allowing for both frequency selectivity and an increased sensitivity of −45 dBm (25 photons/bit). We investigated a channel spacing as low as 5 GHz, for which the loss budget was 48.6 dB, increasing to 54.0 dB for a 50 GHz grid.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 685–693 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. P. Iannone and K. C. Reichmann, “Optical access beyond 10 Gb/s PON,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper Tu3.B.1 (20 10).
  5. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper 10.5.5 (2009).
  6. S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, and N. Sakurai, “Coherent WDM-PON using heterodyne detection with transmitter-side polarization diversity,” IEICE Electron. Express 7(16), 1195–1200 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Narikawa, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Coherent WDM-PON based on heterodyne detection with digital signal processing for simple ONU structure,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper Tu3.5.7 (2006).
  8. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 18, 14871–14877 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, and Y. C. Chung, “Recent progresses in coherentWDMPON technologies,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ITCON), Paper TuA1.3 (2010).
  10. S.-Y. Kim, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and K. Kumozaki, “10-Gbit/s next-generation coherent QPSK-PON with reduced bandwidth requirements employing linear digital equalization with adaptive algorithm,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Paper OMN6 (2009).
  11. T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyata, K. Kuno, H. Tagami, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Experimental demonstration of net coding gain of 10.1 dB using 12.4 Gb/s block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Paper PD21 (2003).
  12. T. E. Darcie, “Subcarrier multiplexing for multiple-access lightwave networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(8), 1103–1110 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

2010 (2)

S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, and N. Sakurai, “Coherent WDM-PON using heterodyne detection with transmitter-side polarization diversity,” IEICE Electron. Express 7(16), 1195–1200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 18, 14871–14877 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. E. Darcie, “Subcarrier multiplexing for multiple-access lightwave networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(8), 1103–1110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, T.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachus, E.-J.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Braun, R.-P.

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 18, 14871–14877 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darcie, T. E.

T. E. Darcie, “Subcarrier multiplexing for multiple-access lightwave networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(8), 1103–1110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Depovere, G.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ebberg, A.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eutin, W.

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, M. R.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foisel, H.

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Großmann, E.

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heimes, K.

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. P.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 18, 14871–14877 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoe, G.-D.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koning, O.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marsden, R.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J.

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narikawa, S.

S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, and N. Sakurai, “Coherent WDM-PON using heterodyne detection with transmitter-side polarization diversity,” IEICE Electron. Express 7(16), 1195–1200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rawsthorne, J.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, N.

S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, and N. Sakurai, “Coherent WDM-PON using heterodyne detection with transmitter-side polarization diversity,” IEICE Electron. Express 7(16), 1195–1200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanjoh, H.

S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, and N. Sakurai, “Coherent WDM-PON using heterodyne detection with transmitter-side polarization diversity,” IEICE Electron. Express 7(16), 1195–1200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shea, D.

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strebel, B.

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 18, 14871–14877 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, T.

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsubokawa, M.

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, S.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wauters, N.

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

E.-J. Bachus, R.-P. Braun, W. Eutin, E. Großmann, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, and B. Strebel, “Coherent optical-fibre subscriber line,” Electron. Lett. 21(25), 1203–1205 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Multi-wavelength optical transmitter based on timedomain modulation of directly modulated wavelength-swept light,” Electron. Lett. 44(10), 641–642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

S. Narikawa, H. Sanjoh, and N. Sakurai, “Coherent WDM-PON using heterodyne detection with transmitter-side polarization diversity,” IEICE Electron. Express 7(16), 1195–1200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Darcie, “Subcarrier multiplexing for multiple-access lightwave networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(8), 1103–1110 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(3), 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E.-J. Bachus, T. Almeida, P. Demeester, G. Depovere, A. Ebberg, M. R. Ferreira, G.-D. Khoe, O. Koning, R. Marsden, J. Rawsthorne, and N. Wauters, “Coherent optical systems implemented for business traffic routing and access: the RACE COBRA project,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 1309–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON,” Opt. Express 18, 14871–14877 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

S. Narikawa, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Coherent WDM-PON based on heterodyne detection with digital signal processing for simple ONU structure,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper Tu3.5.7 (2006).

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, and Y. C. Chung, “Recent progresses in coherentWDMPON technologies,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ITCON), Paper TuA1.3 (2010).

S.-Y. Kim, N. Sakurai, H. Kimura, and K. Kumozaki, “10-Gbit/s next-generation coherent QPSK-PON with reduced bandwidth requirements employing linear digital equalization with adaptive algorithm,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Paper OMN6 (2009).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ouchi, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyata, K. Kuno, H. Tagami, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “Experimental demonstration of net coding gain of 10.1 dB using 12.4 Gb/s block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Paper PD21 (2003).

P. P. Iannone and K. C. Reichmann, “Optical access beyond 10 Gb/s PON,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper Tu3.B.1 (20 10).

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Paper 10.5.5 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LR-PON Experimental configuration, where the power loss due to the splitting in the Passive Distribution Network is emulated by a variable optical attenuator. Note that, in practice, multiple channels created at the OLT could be generated using a single laser with sub-carrier multiplexing [12], or through time-domain modulation of wavelength-swept light [13].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Back-to-back sensitivity measurements at different channel spacings. At the 2 × 10−2 FEC limit (dashed line), the sensitivity penalty is 1.3 dB for a 5 GHz channel spacing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Back-to-back and transmission at different launch powers for (a) single channel (b) 50 GHz channel spacing (c) 5 GHz channel spacing. The 2 × 10−2 FEC limit is indicated by the dashed line. For a 5 GHz grid, the loss budget is 48.6 dB, increasing to 54.0 dB for a 50 GHz grid. The received spectrum for 5 GHz channel spacing after 120 km SMF is shown in (d). For a 6 dBm launch power, four-wave mixing (FWM) effects become visible. Note that, for high launch powers, the BER performance of the central channel is degraded with respect to the outer channels, which we attribute to the central channel being impaired by cross phase modulation (XPM) and FWM products from both outer channels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Split ratio vs. maximum transmission distance. Dashed line shows 1:1024 split ratio.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reported receiver sensitivities for coherent PON experiments

Metrics