Abstract

The propagation of high intensity laser beams is excessively affected by optical nonlinear effects, thereby the knowledge of the nonlinear refractive indices of the beam guiding media is indispensable in the design of laser systems and experiments. Apart from undesired self-focusing, several areas of modern laser spectroscopy can utilize optical nonlinearity, from LiDAR measurements to filamentation. In this paper we report on a direct measurement of pressure dependent nonlinear refractive index of Ar, N2, Ne, Xe, and air between 0.05 mbar and 1 bar, based on the powerful technique called spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry. In this way the total value of nonlinear refractive index is measured, that is the sum of all elementary phenomena contributing to the intensity dependent refractivity of the gases.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of high order Kerr refractive index of major air components,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13429–13434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

A. Börzsönyi, Z. Heiner, M. P. Kalashnikov, A. P. Kovács, and K. Osvay, “Dispersion measurement of inert gases and gas mixtures at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4856–4863 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, “Advances and limitations of phase dispersion measurement by spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3051–3061 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

G. A. Mourou, C. L. Labaune, N. Naumova, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Relativistic laser-matter interaction: from attosecond pulse generation to fast ignition,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 49(12B), B667–B675 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Osvay, K. Varju, and G. Kurdi, “High order dispersion control for femtosecond CPA lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 565–572 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7458–7467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 87–96 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056712 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. A. Pitts, T. S. Luk, J. K. Gruetzner, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, S. M. Cameron, and A. C. Bernstein, “Propagation of self-focusing laser pulses in atmosphere: experiment versus numerical simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2008–2016 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4124–4126 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1998 (2)

J. Calatroni, C. Sainz, and A. L. Guerro, “Multi-channelled white-light interferometry for real-time dispersion measurements,” Opt. Commun. 157(1-6), 202–208 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. P. Shelton, “Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 42(5), 2578–2592 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, “Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 56(1), 67–72 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, “3rd-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1–68 (1979).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTauge, “Birefringence arising from reorientation of polarizability anisptropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
[Crossref]

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 2497–2501 (1976).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeev, I.

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7458–7467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056712 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4124–4126 (2002).
[Crossref]

André, Y.-B.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anscombe, M. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 87–96 (2006).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

Azarm, A.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, A. C.

Biegert, J.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 87–96 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bor, Z.

Börzsönyi, A.

A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, “Advances and limitations of phase dispersion measurement by spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3051–3061 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Börzsönyi, Z. Heiner, M. P. Kalashnikov, A. P. Kovács, and K. Osvay, “Dispersion measurement of inert gases and gas mixtures at 800 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4856–4863 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradler, M.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

Brée, C.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bulanov, S. V.

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Calatroni, J.

J. Calatroni, C. Sainz, and A. L. Guerro, “Multi-channelled white-light interferometry for real-time dispersion measurements,” Opt. Commun. 157(1-6), 202–208 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cameron, S. M.

Chakraborty, H. S.

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A. Couairon, J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 87–96 (2006).
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A. Couairon, J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 87–96 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schnürer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shelton, D. P.

D. P. Shelton, “Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 42(5), 2578–2592 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimoji, Y.

Simard, P. T.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stibenz, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suda, A.

Suzuki, T.

Szipöcs, R.

Tajima, T.

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Terasaki, A.

Theberge, F.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

G. A. Mourou, C. L. Labaune, N. Naumova, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Relativistic laser-matter interaction: from attosecond pulse generation to fast ignition,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 49(12B), B667–B675 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tokunaga, E.

Tzortzakis, S.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref]

Uryupina, D. S.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Varju, K.

K. Osvay, K. Varju, and G. Kurdi, “High order dispersion control for femtosecond CPA lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 565–572 (2007).
[Crossref]

Varma, S.

Vidal, F.

Volkov, R. V.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 35–43 (2008).
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Weber, M. J.

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 2497–2501 (1976).
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Xu, H. L.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhavoronkov, N.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 379–382 (2004).
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M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-µJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
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O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 35–43 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Osvay, K. Varju, and G. Kurdi, “High order dispersion control for femtosecond CPA lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 565–572 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4124–4126 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 2497–2501 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 87–96 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

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A. Börzsönyi, A. P. Kovács, M. Görbe, and K. Osvay, “Advances and limitations of phase dispersion measurement by spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3051–3061 (2008).
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[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Theberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (8)

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
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A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
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C. Y. Chien, B. La Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, and H. P. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 578–580 (2000).
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S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(10), 764–766 (2000).
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Phys. Plasmas (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056712 (2005).
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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. A (3)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTauge, “Birefringence arising from reorientation of polarizability anisptropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
[Crossref]

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A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5), 056604 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion (1)

G. A. Mourou, C. L. Labaune, N. Naumova, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Relativistic laser-matter interaction: from attosecond pulse generation to fast ignition,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 49(12B), B667–B675 (2007).
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Other (2)

D. E. Adams, T. A. Planchon, J. A. Squier, C. G. Durfee, “Spatio-temporal characterization of nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses,” CLEO/QELS 2010 paper: CThDD5.

K. Osvay, A. Borzsonyi, Z. Heiner, A. P. Kovács, M. P. Kalashnikov, “Measurement of pressure dependent nonlinear refractive index of inert gases,” CLEO/QELS 2009 paper: CMU7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrally and spatially resolved interference fringes calculated for various intensity of transform-limited pulses propagating 10 m in ambient air.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated spectral shape of nonlinear phase shift at different stretched pulse durations of a transform limited 25 fs pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. The intensity ratio of the sample and reference arm is 10:1, while their intensity is equal at the input and output windows of the tube.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental verification of the similarity between the spectral shape of nonlinear phase shift of the stretched pulses and the spectral intensity of the pulses (c.f. Fig. 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pressure dependence of n 2 for (a) argon, (b) air and (c) neon. Similar graphs have been obtained for xenon and nitrogen, too. Linear regressions are represented by black curves. Please mind the logarithmic scale.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pressure-dependent nonlinear refractive indices for Ar, Ne, Xe, N2 and air. For comparison, the previously reported theoretical [17] and experimental [16,19,24,32,44] n 2 values at 1000 mbar are also displayed.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ S ( y , ω ) = ω c ( ( n M e d ( ω ) + n 2 M e d I S ( y , ω ) d ω ) l S , M e d + ( n O b j ( ω ) + n 2 O b j I S ( y , ω ) d ω ) l O b j ) ,
ϕ R ( y , ω ) = ω c ( ( n M e d ( ω ) + n 2 M e d I R ( y , ω ) d ω ) l R , M e d ) ,
Δ ϕ ( y , ω ) = ω c ( n 2 ( I S ( y , ω ) d ω l t u b e I R ( y , ω ) d ω ( l t u b e l c o r r . ) ) ( n a i r ( ω ) n ( ω ) ) l c o r r . ) ,

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