Abstract

An analysis of the temporal noise in the Stokes parameters computed by division of focal plane polarimeters is presented. Theoretical estimations of the Stokes parameter signal-to-noise ratios for CCD polarization imaging sensors with both 4-polarizer and 2-polarizer micropolarization filter arrays are derived. The theoretical derivation is verified with measurements from an integrated polarization imaging sensor composed of a CCD imaging array and aluminum nanowire polarization filters. The measured data obtained from the CCD polarimeters matches the theoretical derivations of the temporal noise model of the Stokes parameters.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. H. Goldstein, “Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 31(31), 6676–6683 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29, 685–689 (1982).
  6. J. S. Tyo, “Hybrid division of aperture/division of a focal-plane polarimeter for real-time polarization imagery without an instantaneous field-of-view error,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2984–2986 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. L. Pezzaniti and D. B. Chenault, “A division of aperture MWIR imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880V (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19087–19094 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Gruev, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Dual-tier thin film polymer polarization imaging sensor,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19292–19303 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Momeni and A. H. Titus, “An analog VLSI chip emulating polarization vision of Octopus retina,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 17(1), 222–232 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  24. J. S. Tyo and H. Wei, “Optimizing imaging polarimeters constructed with imperfect optics,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5497–5503 (2006).
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2010

V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19087–19094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gruev, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Dual-tier thin film polymer polarization imaging sensor,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19292–19303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Liquid-crystal micropolarimeter array for full Stokes polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17776–17787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Goudail and A. Bénière, “Estimation precision of the degree of linear polarization and of the angle of polarization in the presence of different sources of noise,” Appl. Opt. 49(4), 683–693 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z Z. Wang, J. S. Tyo, and M. M. Hayat, “Generalized signal-to-noise ratio for spectral sensors with correlated bands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2528–2534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Momeni and A. H. Titus, “An analog VLSI chip emulating polarization vision of Octopus retina,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 17(1), 222–232 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, “Hybrid division of aperture/division of a focal-plane polarimeter for real-time polarization imagery without an instantaneous field-of-view error,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2984–2986 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo and H. Wei, “Optimizing imaging polarimeters constructed with imperfect optics,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5497–5503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. L. Pezzaniti and D. B. Chenault, “A division of aperture MWIR imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880V (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo, “Design of optimal polarimeters: maximization of signal-to-noise ratio and minimization of systematic error,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 619–630 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. S. Tyo, “Optimum linear combination strategy for an N-channel polarization-sensitive imaging or vision system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(2), 359–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6083–6094 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D. H. Goldstein, “Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 31(31), 6676–6683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29, 685–689 (1982).

Andreou, A.

A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 29, 685–689 (1982).

Banner, M. L.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bénière, A.

F. Goudail and A. Bénière, “Estimation precision of the degree of linear polarization and of the angle of polarization in the presence of different sources of noise,” Appl. Opt. 49(4), 683–693 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermak, A.

X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Liquid-crystal micropolarimeter array for full Stokes polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17776–17787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, W. T.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boger, J. K.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boussaid, F.

X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Liquid-crystal micropolarimeter array for full Stokes polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17776–17787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, D. L.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Pezzaniti and D. B. Chenault, “A division of aperture MWIR imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880V (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Liquid-crystal micropolarimeter array for full Stokes polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17776–17787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corrada-Emmanuel, A.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M. R.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

V. Gruev, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Dual-tier thin film polymer polarization imaging sensor,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19292–19303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fetrow, M. P.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. H.

D. H. Goldstein, “Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 31(31), 6676–6683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, D. L.

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudail, F.

F. Goudail and A. Bénière, “Estimation precision of the degree of linear polarization and of the angle of polarization in the presence of different sources of noise,” Appl. Opt. 49(4), 683–693 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruev, V.

V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19087–19094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gruev, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Dual-tier thin film polymer polarization imaging sensor,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19292–19303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayat, M. M.

Z Z. Wang, J. S. Tyo, and M. M. Hayat, “Generalized signal-to-noise ratio for spectral sensors with correlated bands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2528–2534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubbs, J. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalayjian, Z.

A. Andreou and Z. Kalayjian, “Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters,” IEEE Sens. J. 2(6), 566–576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kemme, S. A.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lazarus, N.

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6083–6094 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momeni, M.

M. Momeni and A. H. Titus, “An analog VLSI chip emulating polarization vision of Octopus retina,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 17(1), 222–232 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohta, J.

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, S. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ortu, A.

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, R.

V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19087–19094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti and D. B. Chenault, “A division of aperture MWIR imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880V (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phipps, G. S.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ratliff, B. M.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sabatke, D. S.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasagawa, K.

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, H.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatt, W. C.

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, “Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 802–804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Titus, A. H.

M. Momeni and A. H. Titus, “An analog VLSI chip emulating polarization vision of Octopus retina,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 17(1), 222–232 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokuda, T.

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z Z. Wang, J. S. Tyo, and M. M. Hayat, “Generalized signal-to-noise ratio for spectral sensors with correlated bands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2528–2534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo and H. Wei, “Optimizing imaging polarimeters constructed with imperfect optics,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5497–5503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, “Hybrid division of aperture/division of a focal-plane polarimeter for real-time polarization imagery without an instantaneous field-of-view error,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2984–2986 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, “Design of optimal polarimeters: maximization of signal-to-noise ratio and minimization of systematic error,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 619–630 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, “Optimum linear combination strategy for an N-channel polarization-sensitive imaging or vision system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(2), 359–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van der Spiegel, J.

V. Gruev, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Dual-tier thin film polymer polarization imaging sensor,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19292–19303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss and Y. Liu, “Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight. I. System description and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6083–6094 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z Z.

Z Z. Wang, J. S. Tyo, and M. M. Hayat, “Generalized signal-to-noise ratio for spectral sensors with correlated bands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2528–2534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.

J. S. Tyo and H. Wei, “Optimizing imaging polarimeters constructed with imperfect optics,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5497–5503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wellems, L. D.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, “Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for long-wave infrared microgrid imaging polarimeters,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, L. B.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, J.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

T. Tokuda, S. Sato, H. Yamada, K. Sasagawa, and J. Ohta, “Polarisation-analysing CMOS photosensor with monolithically embedded wire grid polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 45(4), 228–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

York, T.

V. Gruev, R. Perkins, and T. York, “CCD polarization imaging sensor with aluminum nanowire optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19087–19094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappa, C. J.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawings of division of focal plane polarization imaging sensors with (a) a 4-polarizer filter array and (b) a 2-polarizer filter array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental and theoretical signal-to-noise ratios for S 0 for both the 4-polarizer and 2-polarizer filter array architectures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and theoretical signal-to noise ratios for S 1 for both the 4-polarizer and 2-polarizer filter array architectures at 3 different S 0 values. Different values of S 0 are represented by the different colors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental and theoretical signal-to noise ratios for S 2 for both the 4-polarizer and 2-polarizer filter array architectures at 3 different S 0 values. Different values of S 0 are represented by the different colors.

Equations (21)

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σ s h o t = I p h o t o ,
σ S 0 = ( ( S 0 ) ( I 0 ) ) 2 σ I 0 2 + ( ( S 0 ) ( I 90 ) ) 2 σ I 90 2 ,
σ S 1 = ( ( S 1 ) ( I 0 ) ) 2 σ I 0 2 + ( ( S 1 ) ( I 90 ) ) 2 σ I 90 2 ,
σ S 2 = ( ( S 2 ) ( I 45 ) ) 2 σ I 45 2 + ( ( S 2 ) ( I 135 ) ) 2 σ I 135 2 .
σ S 0 = I 0 + I 90 + 2 R 2 ,
σ S 1 = I 0 + I 90 + 2 R 2 ,
σ S 2 = I 45 + I 135 + 2 R 2 .
σ S 0 = σ S 1 = σ S 2 = S 0 + 2 R 2 .
σ S 0 = ( ( S 0 ) ( I t o t ) ) 2 σ I 2 ,
σ S 1 = ( ( S 1 ) ( I t o t ) ) 2 σ I t o t 2 + ( ( S 1 ) ( I 0 ) ) 2 σ I 0 2 ,
σ S 2 = ( ( S 2 ) ( I t o t ) ) 2 σ I t o t 2 + ( ( S 2 ) ( I 45 ) ) 2 σ I 45 2 .
σ S 0 = I t o t + R 2 ,
σ S 1 = 4 I 0 + I t o t + 5 R 2 ,
σ S 2 = 4 I 45 + I t o t + 5 R 2 .
σ S 0 = S 0 + R 2 ,
σ S 1 = 3 S 0 + 2 S 1 + 5 R 2 ,
σ S 2 = 3 S 0 + 2 S 2 + 5 R 2 .
S N R ( S 0 ) = S 0 S 0 + R 2 ,
S N R ( S 1 ) = | S 1 | 3 S 0 + 2 S 1 + 5 R 2 ,
S N R ( S 2 ) = | S 2 | 3 S 0 + 2 S 2 + 5 R 2 .
S N R ( S 0 ) = 2 * S 0 S 0 + R 2 .

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