Abstract

We report an experimental realization of an atomic vapor quantum memory for the photonic polarization qubit. The performance of the quantum memory for the polarization qubit, realized with electromagnetically-induced transparency in two spatially separated ensembles of warm Rubidium atoms in a single vapor cell, has been characterized with quantum process tomography. The process fidelity better than 0.91 for up to 16 μs of storage time has been achieved.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, "Optical quantum memory," Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fleischhauer, and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-W. Cho, and Y.-H. Kim, "Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 82, 033830 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. N. Matsukevich, and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum state transfer between matter and light," Science 306, 663 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. The optical depth d is defined as the off-resonant transmittance, exp(−d), of the EIT spectrum. The experiment was done with a relatively ‘thin’ optical medium to avoid unwanted four-wave mixing processes which could occur at higher optical depth, see Ref. [18]. It should be easier to work with a greater optical depth for Rubidium 87 as the ground state hyperfine splitting is much larger than that of Rubidium 85.
  18. N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, "Optimal light storage in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Höckel, E. Martin, and O. Benson, "Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026108 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y.-W. Cho, and Y.-H. Kim, "Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 82, 033830 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Höckel, E. Martin, and O. Benson, "Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, "Optical quantum memory," Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, "Optimal light storage in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. N. Matsukevich, and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum state transfer between matter and light," Science 306, 663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Fleischhauer, and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akamatsu, D.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, K.

K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andre, A.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arikawa, M.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Kish, A.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

D. Höckel, E. Martin, and O. Benson, "Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, B.

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanelière, T.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-Q.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Cho, and Y.-H. Kim, "Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 82, 033830 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. S.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davison, N.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernholz, T.

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, E.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firstenberg, O.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorshkov, A. V.

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, "Optimal light storage in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Höckel, D.

D. Höckel, E. Martin, and O. Benson, "Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, K.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, S. D.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, K.

K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, T. A. B.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-W. Cho, and Y.-H. Kim, "Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 82, 033830 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korystov, D.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozuma, M.

K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulik, S. P.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmich, A.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Matsukevich, and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum state transfer between matter and light," Science 306, 663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, S.-Y.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurat, J.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobino, M.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.-M.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, "Optical quantum memory," Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, S.

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, E.

D. Höckel, E. Martin, and O. Benson, "Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massou, F.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsukevich, D. N.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Matsukevich, and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum state transfer between matter and light," Science 306, 663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, W. J.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuka, S.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemoto, K.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ning, B.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novikova, I.

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, "Optimal light storage in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-W.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, N. B.

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, "Optimal light storage in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pugatch, R.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ra, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ron, A.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, "Optical quantum memory," Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedmayer, J.

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuker, M.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanimura, T.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanji, H.

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, "Optical quantum memory," Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vewinger, F.

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuletic, V.

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsworth, R. L.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.-Y.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, Y.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonehara, T.

K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.-P.

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Phys.

K. Akiba, K. Kashiwagi, T. Yonehara, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and retrieval of nonclassical photon pairs and conditional single photons generated by the parametric down-conversion process," N. J. Phys. 11, 013049 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, "Optical quantum memory," Nat. Photonics 3, 706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, "Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory," Nature 452, 67 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Y.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Cho, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, "Reversing the weak quantum measurement for a photonic qubit," Opt. Express 17, 11978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, "Collisional decoherence during wring and reading quantum states," Phys. Rev. A 75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, X.-M. Luo, L.-Q. Chen, B. Ning, S. Chen, J.-Y. Wang, Z.-P. Zhong, and J.-W. Pan, "Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell," Phys. Rev. A 80, 062303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Phillips, A. V. Gorshkov, and I. Novikova, "Optimal light storage in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 78, 023801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davison, "Anglular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Cho, and Y.-H. Kim, "Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 82, 033830 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, "Quantum memory for squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, "Storage and Retrieval of a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tanji, S. Ghosh, J. Simon, B. Bloom, and V. Vuletić, "Heralded Single-Magnon Quantum Memory for Photon Polarization States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, and M. D. Lukin, "Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, "Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. Höckel, E. Martin, and O. Benson, "Note: An ultranarrow bandpass filter system for single-photon experiments in quantum optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 026108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. N. Matsukevich, and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum state transfer between matter and light," Science 306, 663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

The optical depth d is defined as the off-resonant transmittance, exp(−d), of the EIT spectrum. The experiment was done with a relatively ‘thin’ optical medium to avoid unwanted four-wave mixing processes which could occur at higher optical depth, see Ref. [18]. It should be easier to work with a greater optical depth for Rubidium 87 as the ground state hyperfine splitting is much larger than that of Rubidium 85.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment. The photonic polarization mode is mapped onto two spatially separated atomic ensembles in a single warm vapor cell by the means of electromagnetically-induced transparency. The coupling fields are both vertically polarized. The polarization state of retrieved field is analyzed by a set of wave plates (WP) and a polarizer (P). BD: Beam displacer, PBS: Polarizing beam splitter, HWP: Half-wave plate, ϕ plate: AR coated glass plate, D: single-photon detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The energy level configuration of Rubidium 85. (b) Measurement of the EIT spectra for the two spatial modes, the H labeled and the V labeled modes in Fig. 1(a), by detuning the coupling frequency. The two EIT spectra are matched at FWHM linewidths of 90 kHz. Note that the spectra are vertically shifted for ease of comparison

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time sequence for the storage and retrieval process. A detector gating pulse is applied to the single-photon detector D for detecting the retrieved probe field only. (b) Storage and retrieval of the |D〉 polarization state with 7 μs storage duration. For this measurement, two photocurrents detectors and a PBS are used instead of the state tomography setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plot of the quantum process tensor χ for the storage duration of 7 μs. (b) The fidelity of quantum process and the retrieval efficiency as a function of storage duration. The process fidelity is over 0.91 for up to 16 μs storage duration.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| ψ i n = cos θ | H + e i ϕ sin θ | V ,
Ψ ^ ( z , t ) = cos θ Ψ ^ H ( z , t ) + e i ϕ sin θ Ψ ^ V ( z , t ) ,

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