Abstract

We demonstrate a light emitting p-i-n diode made of a highly aligned film of separated (99%) semiconducting carbon nanotubes, self-assembled from solution. By using a split gate technique, we create p- and n-doped regions in the nanotube film that are separated by a micron-wide gap. We inject p- and n-type charge carriers into the device channel from opposite contacts and investigate the radiative recombination using optical micro-spectroscopy. We find that the threshold-less light generation efficiency in the intrinsic carbon nanotube film segment can be enhanced by increasing the potential drop across the junction, demonstrating the LED-principle in a carbon nanotube film for the first time. The device emits infrared light that is polarized along the long axes of the carbon nanotubes that form the aligned film.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. U. Lee, P. P. Gipp, and C. M. Heller, “Carbon nanotube p-n junction diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 145–147 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. U. Lee, P. P. Gipp, and C. M. Heller, “Carbon nanotube p-n junction diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 145–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, E.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, C. M.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, M. S.

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, K.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bol, A. A.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosnick, K.

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghard, M.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, P.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, M.

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farhat, H.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farmer, D. B.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, M.

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, M.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabor, N. M.

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galland, C.

A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gipp, P. P.

J. U. Lee, P. P. Gipp, and C. M. Heller, “Carbon nanotube p-n junction diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 145–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. A.

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guest, J. R.

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, J.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinze, S.

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heller, C. M.

J. U. Lee, P. P. Gipp, and C. M. Heller, “Carbon nanotube p-n junction diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 145–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hersam, M. C.

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, X.

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Högele, A.

A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulvat, J. F.

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y. K.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinkhabwala, A.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, M.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. D.

A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. U.

J. U. Lee, P. P. Gipp, and C. M. Heller, “Carbon nanotube p-n junction diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 145–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, D.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martel, R.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, Y.

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marty, L.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McEuen, P. L.

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ménard, D.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meunier, F.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mews, A.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Misewich, J. A.

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, T.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A.

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedrosa, H. N.

A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perebeinos, V.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pop, E.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small, J. P.

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Son, H.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St-Antoine, B. C.

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, M.

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stupp, S. I.

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tersoff, J.

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, J.

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, J. C.

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wannek, U.

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winger, M.

A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, D.

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaumseil, J.

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

M. Freitag, M. Steiner, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Carbon nanotube photo- and electroluminescence in longitudinal electric fields,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3744–3748 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner, M. Freitag, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and P. Avouris, “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano 2(12), 2445–2452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, X. Ho, J. R. Guest, G. P. Wiederrecht, and J. A. Rogers, “Electroluminescence from electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2225–2234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Balasubramanian, Y. Fan, M. Burghard, K. Kern, M. Friedrich, U. Wannek, and A. Mews, “Photoelectronic transport imaging of individual semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2400–2402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Lee, P. P. Gipp, and C. M. Heller, “Carbon nanotube p-n junction diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 145–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Chen, A. Stein, J. C. Tsang, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Hot Carrier Electroluminescence from a Single Carbon Nanotube,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1063–1066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of Single Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1067–1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Xie, H. Farhat, H. Son, J. Zhang, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, and Z. Liu, “Electroluminescence from suspended and on-substrate metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1747–1751 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, A. Naumov, J. P. Small, A. A. Bol, and P. Avouris, “Gate-variable light absorption and emission in a semiconducting carbon nanotube,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3477–3481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Adam, C. M. Aguirre, L. Marty, B. C. St-Antoine, F. Meunier, P. Desjardins, D. Ménard, and R. Martel, “Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2351–2355 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (4)

T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. A. Bol, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Steiner, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. C. Tsang, J. P. Small, M. Kinoshita, D. Yuan, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(5), 320–324 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mann, Y. K. Kato, A. Kinkhabwala, E. Pop, J. Cao, X. Wang, L. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Guo, and H. Dai, “Electrically driven thermal light emission from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 33–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Högele, C. Galland, M. Winger, and A. Imamoğlu, “Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 217401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

N. M. Gabor, Z. Zhong, K. Bosnick, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes,” Science 325(5946), 1367–1371 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, and P. Avouris, “Bright infrared emission from electrically induced excitons in carbon nanotubes,” Science 310(5751), 1171–1174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hartschuh, H. N. Pedrosa, L. Novotny, and T. D. Krauss, “Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes,” Science 301(5638), 1354–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration and (b) scanning electron microscope image of CNT film diodes with split top gates (TG1 and TG2). In (b), the channel length L C between source (S) and drain (D) contacts is 4 μm and the gap between TG1 and TG2 is 1 μm. The length of the scale bar is 2 micron.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a, b) Source-drain electrical current transfer as a function of the top-gate voltage measured for CNT film diodes having a channel length (a) L C = 4 μm and (b) L C = 6 μm, respectively, where V TG = V TG1 = V TG2. (c, d) Corresponding electrical output characteristics measured for the same devices. In the forward bias, the electrical output increases as a function of the difference between the two split gate voltages (potential drop), while the output is generally suppressed in the reverse direction, as indicated by the arrows in (d). (e) Rectifying diode characteristics for a CNT film device with L C= 10 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Electroluminescence intensity and corresponding drain-source current characteristics (inset) as a function of source-drain voltage. The associated top gate voltages V TG1/V TG2 are denoted in the inset. Positive V DS corresponds to the forward-bias direction. (b) Electroluminescence intensity plotted as a function of electrical power P EL=V DS·I DS. Experimental data points are represented by symbols (open symbols: forward bias, solid symbols: reverse bias), the lines represent best fits to the experimental data points. The corresponding top gate voltages V TG1/V TG2 are also indicated. (Inset) The zoom reveals the threshold behavior of the electroluminescence emission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Light output characteristics (spectrally integrated electroluminescence intensity) of both a CNT thin film LED and a p-i-n diode made of a single carbon nantotube. Both devices are biased in the forward mode. The corresponding split gate voltages V TG1/V TG2 are −5V/+5V in case of the CNT thin film device and −20V/+20V in case of the single CNT device. (b) Polarization dependence of the electroluminescence intensity from a CNT thin film diode in the forward mode (V DS=10V) for two different split gate settings V TG1/V TG2 (black circles: experiment, black line: fit, I max/I min=3.64; red squares: experiment, red line: fit, I max/I min=3.72). The CNTs forming the film are aligned along the 0° – 180° marks.

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