Abstract

We present the design of an air hole microstructured photonic crystal fiber for pressure sensing applications. The air-hole photonic crystal lattices were designed to produce a large intrinsic birefringence of 1.16x10-3. The impact of the surrounding air holes for pressure sensing to the propagation mode profiles and indices were studied and improved, which ensures single mode propagation in the fiber core defined by the photonic crystal lattice. An air hole matrix and a practical chemical etching process during the fiber perform preparation stage is proposed to produce an optical fiber with a birefringence-pressure coefficient of 43.89x10-6MPa-1 or a fiber Bragg grating pressure responsivity of 44.15 pm/MPa, which is a 17 times improvement over previous photonic crystal fiber designs.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
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  9. F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Kim, C. S. Kee, and C. G. Lee, “Modified rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and negative dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7952–7957 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Jewart and D. Xu, “J. Canning and K. P. Chen, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041Z (2008).
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  17. J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure Sensitivity of Side-Hole Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986).
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2010 (1)

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Kim, C. S. Kee, and C. G. Lee, “Modified rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and negative dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7952–7957 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. Jewart and D. Xu, “J. Canning and K. P. Chen, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. K. Gahir and D. Khanna, “Design and development of a temperature-compensated fiber optic polarimetric pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber at 1550 nm,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1184–1189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure Sensitivity of Side-Hole Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Antkowiak, M.

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anuszkiewicz, A.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berghmans, F.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braga, A. M. B.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clowes, J. R.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure Sensitivity of Side-Hole Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fávero, F. C.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gahir, H. K.

H. K. Gahir and D. Khanna, “Design and development of a temperature-compensated fiber optic polarimetric pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber at 1550 nm,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1184–1189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geernaert, T.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, R.

R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golojuch, G.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jewart, C.

C. Jewart and D. Xu, “J. Canning and K. P. Chen, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kee, C. S.

S. Kim, C. S. Kee, and C. G. Lee, “Modified rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and negative dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7952–7957 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, D.

H. K. Gahir and D. Khanna, “Design and development of a temperature-compensated fiber optic polarimetric pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber at 1550 nm,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1184–1189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, C. S. Kee, and C. G. Lee, “Modified rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and negative dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7952–7957 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimek, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotynski, R.

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. G.

S. Kim, C. S. Kee, and C. G. Lee, “Modified rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and negative dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7952–7957 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesiak, P.

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Llerena, R. W. A.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikainen, K.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makara, M.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martynkien, T.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olszewski, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poturaj, K.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quintero, S. M. M.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Silva, V. V.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skorupski, K.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnenfeld, C.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Statkiewicz, G.

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syngellakis, S.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure Sensitivity of Side-Hole Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Szczurowski, M. K.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szpulak, M.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarnowski, K.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thienpont, H.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

C. Jewart and D. Xu, “J. Canning and K. P. Chen, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure Sensitivity of Side-Hole Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Gahir and D. Khanna, “Design and development of a temperature-compensated fiber optic polarimetric pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber at 1550 nm,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1184–1189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with core asymmetry,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 325–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure Sensitivity of Side-Hole Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, “Polarization maintaining fibers and their applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(8), 1071–1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, T. Nasilowski, P. Lesiak, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Phase and group modal birefringence of triple-defect photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(12), 763–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of the Refractive Index of Fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, C. S. Kee, and C. G. Lee, “Modified rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence and negative dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7952–7957 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Ghosh, A. Kumar, J. P. Meunier, and E. Marin, “Modal characteristics of few-mode silica-based photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(6/8), 963–970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Jewart and D. Xu, “J. Canning and K. P. Chen, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7004, 70041Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503, 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” 2006 International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, (ICTON, 2006) pp. 174-177.

H. Y. Tam, S. K. Khijwania, and X. Y. Dong, "Temperature-Insensitive Pressure Sensor using a Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber based Sagnac Interferometer," 2007 Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conference, (IEEE, 2007) pp. 345-347.

S. Barkou Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, "High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber," OFC2001. Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit. Technical Digest Postconference Edition. (IEEE, 2001) pp. TuM2-1-3

NKT Photonics - Photonic Crystal Fibers, SuperK Continuum Laser, Koheras Fiber Lasers, http://www.blazephotonics.com

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, and E. Udd, "High Pressure Sensing using Fiber Bragg Gratings Written into Birefringent Side Hole Fiber," 2002 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest. (IEEE, 2002), pp. 355-358.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic design of PCF matrix.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric field distribution of the fundamental mode for x (left) and y (right) polarizations, the black scale bar in the figure indicate 5 μm. The color scale bar indicates relative intensity of guided mode electric fields.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric field distribution of the fundamental mode for x (left) and y (right) polarizations for single-row PCF matrix in the center region of the fiber, the black scale bar indicates 5 μm. The color scale bar indicates relative intensity of guided mode electric fields.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Effective index of refraction for nx (top) and ny (bottom) vs hole radius and (b) higher order mode profiles with air hole radius of 24μm. The color scale bar indicates relative intensity of guided mode electric fields.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength dependence of the phase and group modal birefringence

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multi-hole fiber geometry (left), etched fiber geometry (right)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stress profile for x-component of stress for the Multi-hole Fiber before (left) and after (right) chemical etching, the color bar has unit of MPa

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pressure sensitivity of phase modal birefringence

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n x = n 0 + C 1 σ x + C 2 ( σ y + σ z ) n y = n 0 + C 1 σ y + C 2 ( σ x + σ z )
d B d P = B L o a d e d B u n l o a d e d P ,
B = Δ n = n x n y ,
G = B λ d B d λ ,

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