Abstract

A novel holographic filter using a photopolymer-based cascaded volume Bragg gratings (CVBGs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. The filter was designed to attain a narrow spectral bandwidth characteristic without increasing the thickness of photopolymer used, at 1550nm operating wavelength region. The proposed filter is consisted of a 45° slanted grating working as a surface-normal input/output coupler and a non-slanted reflection grating acting as a narrow-band wavelength selective filter, and it was embedded in the photopolymer film as a waveguide mode. The fabricated filter showed that the bandwidth at the center wavelength of 1547.85nm was about 0.45nm.

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  1. K. Buse, F. Havermeyer, W. Liu, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic filters,” in Photorefractive materials and their applications 3, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 295–317.
  2. W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. L. Jones, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Rectangular characteristic gratings for waveguide input and output coupling,” Appl. Opt. 34(20), 4149–4158 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. D. Wu, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4435–4446 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, “Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 36(6), 1198–1203 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
  7. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
  8. W. Driemeier, “Bragg-effect grating couplers integrated in multicomponent polymeric waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 725–727 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. V. Ciapurin, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “Modeling of gaussian beam diffraction on diffraction on volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 183–194 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. V. Ciapurin, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “Modeling of gaussian beam diffraction on diffraction on volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 183–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. D. Wu, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4435–4446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, “Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 36(6), 1198–1203 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. L. Jones, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Rectangular characteristic gratings for waveguide input and output coupling,” Appl. Opt. 34(20), 4149–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Driemeier, “Bragg-effect grating couplers integrated in multicomponent polymeric waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 725–727 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Ashley, P. R.

Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, “Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 36(6), 1198–1203 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciapurin, I. V.

I. V. Ciapurin, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “Modeling of gaussian beam diffraction on diffraction on volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 183–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driemeier, W.

W. Driemeier, “Bragg-effect grating couplers integrated in multicomponent polymeric waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 725–727 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambogi, W. J.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

S. D. Wu, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4435–4446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstadt, W. A.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

I. V. Ciapurin, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “Modeling of gaussian beam diffraction on diffraction on volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 183–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glytsis, E. N.

S. D. Wu, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4435–4446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, “Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 36(6), 1198–1203 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M. L.

M. L. Jones, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Rectangular characteristic gratings for waveguide input and output coupling,” Appl. Opt. 34(20), 4149–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenan, R. P.

M. L. Jones, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Rectangular characteristic gratings for waveguide input and output coupling,” Appl. Opt. 34(20), 4149–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Mackara, S. R.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, V.

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. M.

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, V. I.

I. V. Ciapurin, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “Modeling of gaussian beam diffraction on diffraction on volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 183–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosnowski, T. P.

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).

Thompson, C.

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsui, J. M.

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verber, C. M.

M. L. Jones, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Rectangular characteristic gratings for waveguide input and output coupling,” Appl. Opt. 34(20), 4149–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, A. M.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. D.

S. D. Wu, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4435–4446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

M. L. Jones, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Rectangular characteristic gratings for waveguide input and output coupling,” Appl. Opt. 34(20), 4149–4158 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Wu, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4435–4446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, “Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 36(6), 1198–1203 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

H. Kogelnik and T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Opt. Express (1)

J. M. Tsui, C. Thompson, V. Mehta, J. M. Roth, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “Coupled-wave analysis of apodized volume gratings,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6642–6653 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

W. Driemeier, “Bragg-effect grating couplers integrated in multicomponent polymeric waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 15(13), 725–727 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. V. Ciapurin, L. B. Glebov, and V. I. Smirnov, “Modeling of gaussian beam diffraction on diffraction on volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass,” Proc. SPIE 5742, 183–194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, and A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” Proc. SPIE 1555, 256–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Buse, F. Havermeyer, W. Liu, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic filters,” in Photorefractive materials and their applications 3, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2007), pp. 295–317.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a waveguide-CVBGs filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for fabricating 45 -VBG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for testing the fabricated waveguide-CVBGs filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized reflected intensity versus the (internal) incident angle for a fixed coupling wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral response of the transmittance of the 45 -VBG for the fixed input coupling angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized reflected intensity versus wavelength for the fixed input coupling angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of the intensity profile of the reflected output beam obtained by the IR camera.

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