Abstract

We measure the intervalley scattering time of electrons in the conduction band of Ge quantum wells from the direct Γ valley to the indirect L valley to be ~185 fs using a pump-probe setup at 1570 nm. We relate this to the width of the exciton peak seen in the absorption spectra of this material, and show that these quantum wells could be used as a fast saturable absorber with a saturation fluence between 0.11 and 0.27 pJ/μm2. We also observe field screening by photogenerated carriers in the material on longer timescales. We model this field screening by incorporating carrier escape from the quantum wells, drift across the intrinsic region, and recovery of the applied voltage through diffusive conduction.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
  5. G. Mak and H. M. van Driel, “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Zhou, H. van Driel, and G. Mak, “Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(8), 5226–5230 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Claussen, L. Tang, J. Roth, O. Fidaner, S. Latif, and D. A. B. Miller, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” presented at the 4th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Tokyo, Japan, 19–21 Sept. 2007.
  9. J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. B. Yairi and D. A. B. Miller, “Equivalence of diffusive conduction and giant ambipolar diffusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4374–4381 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
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  14. D. T. Reid, “Measuring ultra fast laser pulses,” in Ultrafast Photonics, A. Miller, D.T. Reid, and D.M. Finlayson, ed. (Bristol and Philadelphia: Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics and Institute of Physics Publishing, 2002).
  15. A. Othonos, “Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(4), 1789–1830 (1998).
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  16. M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, “Choice of Clip Levels for Beam Width Measurements Using Knife-Edge Techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1098–1104 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, and A. C. Gossard, “State-of-the-art in 1.55 μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 199–204 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyürek, S. Ren, and I. Ted, Kamins, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlu, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge Surface-normal Asymmetric Fabry-Perot Quantum-confined Stark Effect Electroabsorption Modulator,” presented at the IEEE Annual Photonics Society Meeting, Denver, CO, 7–11 Nov. 2010.
  21. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Roth, “Electroabsorption Modulators for CMOS Compatible Optical Interconnects in III-V and Group IV Materials,” Stanford University Electrical Engineering Ph.D. Dissertation, August 2007.
  23. F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift velocity and diffusivity of hot carriers in germanium: model calculations,” Solid-State Electron. 30(12), 1351–1354 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, and A. C. Gossard, “State-of-the-art in 1.55 μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 199–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. B. Yairi and D. A. B. Miller, “Equivalence of diffusive conduction and giant ambipolar diffusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4374–4381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Othonos, “Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(4), 1789–1830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel, “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, H. van Driel, and G. Mak, “Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(8), 5226–5230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, “Choice of Clip Levels for Beam Width Measurements Using Knife-Edge Techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift velocity and diffusivity of hot carriers in germanium: model calculations,” Solid-State Electron. 30(12), 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiyama, S.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asom, M. T.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, and A. C. Gossard, “State-of-the-art in 1.55 μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 199–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, D. J.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavaillès, J. A.

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T. H.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, D. C.

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, and A. C. Gossard, “State-of-the-art in 1.55 μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 199–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Edmond, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, E. H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Effenberger, F. J.

H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eilenberger, D. J.

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

English, J. H.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, J. F.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fidaner, O.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, E.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, N.

M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J. T.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, and A. C. Gossard, “State-of-the-art in 1.55 μm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), 199–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grawert, F. J.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helman, N. C.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T. F.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, “Choice of Clip Levels for Beam Width Measurements Using Knife-Edge Techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kam Wa, P. L.

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koster, N. S.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lange, C.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebedev, M. V.

M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

LiKamWa, P.

H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livescu, G.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mak, G.

X. Zhou, H. van Driel, and G. Mak, “Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(8), 5226–5230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel, “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A.

H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Yairi and D. A. B. Miller, “Equivalence of diffusive conduction and giant ambipolar diffusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4374–4381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misochko, O. V.

M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Omar, M. A.

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift velocity and diffusivity of hot carriers in germanium: model calculations,” Solid-State Electron. 30(12), 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, “Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(4), 1789–1830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reggiani, L.

M. A. Omar and L. Reggiani, “Drift velocity and diffusivity of hot carriers in germanium: model calculations,” Solid-State Electron. 30(12), 1351–1354 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasnett, M. W.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, “Choice of Clip Levels for Beam Width Measurements Using Knife-Edge Techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H. M.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, “Choice of Clip Levels for Beam Width Measurements Using Knife-Edge Techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sizer, T.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, W.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H.

X. Zhou, H. van Driel, and G. Mak, “Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(8), 5226–5230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel, “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Kanel, H.

C. Lange, N. S. Koster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “Comparison of ultrafast carrier thermalization in GaxIn1-xAs and Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. Ö. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “220-fs erbium-ytterbium:glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 329–331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. S.

H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9(11), 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yairi, M. B.

M. B. Yairi and D. A. B. Miller, “Equivalence of diffusive conduction and giant ambipolar diffusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4374–4381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, H. van Driel, and G. Mak, “Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(8), 5226–5230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. A. Cavaillès, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, P. L. Kam Wa, and A. Miller, “Simultaneous measurement of electron and hole escape times from biased single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(4), 426–428 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, T. Sizer, D. J. Burrows, J. Cunningham, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “High-speed absorption recovery in quantum well diodes by diffusive electrical conduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(8), 748–750 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. S. Wang, F. J. Effenberger, P. LiKamWa, and A. Miller, “Ultrafast cross-well carrier transport in a strained multiple-quantum-well InGaAs-GaAs p-i-n modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, and T. F. Johnston, “Choice of Clip Levels for Beam Width Measurements Using Knife-Edge Techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room Temperature Excitonic Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material Properties in Si-Ge/Ge Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris., “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells on Si for Optical Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. B. Yairi and D. A. B. Miller, “Equivalence of diffusive conduction and giant ambipolar diffusion,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4374–4381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Othonos, “Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(4), 1789–1830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

M. V. Lebedev, O. V. Misochko, T. Dekorsy, and N. Georgiev, “On the nature of “coherent artifact”,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 100(2), 272–282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5851 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diagram of the modulator used in this experiment. The device consisted of Ge/SiGe QWs in the intrinsic region of a reverse-biased p-i-n diode. (b) Pump-probe setup used to measure the changes in the probe transmission of the QWs. The different polarizations of the pump and probe beams allowed us to detect changes in the probe induced by the pump as a function of time delay between the two.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in transmission of the probe pulse as a function of its time delay relative to the pump pulse. Dashed curve – fit to a single exponential. Dotted curve – fit to the sum of two exponentials. The single exponential (260 fs) or the faster exponential (200 fs) in the two exponential fit is presumed to be from intervalley scattering in the conduction band. The addition of the slower exponential allows a better fit; speculatively, it might be due to hole scattering or escape. The inset of the figure shows the changes that occur in transmission at 130 °C with small changes in voltage. The large dot indicates the voltage at which this data was taken, where we expect very small changes in transmission with changes in voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field screening is observed in the transmission of the QWs at times following the fast excitonic saturation. A model incorporating the carrier drift time and diffusive conduction (the dotted line is calculated using an estimated drift time for both holes and electrons of 42 ps) can be improved by including separate drift times for each carrier type of 48 and 96 ps (dot-dashed line) or by including a finite exponential time constant of 4 ps (dashed line) for carriers to escape from the QWs. The best fit is achieved by incorporating both improvements (solid line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

By taking the ratio of probe beam photocurrent with and without the pump beam, saturation of the absorption of the QWs is evident in the experimental data points shown. From this data, recorded at 100 °C and 15.5 V reverse bias, we estimate the saturation fluence to be between 0.11 and 0.27 pJ / μm2. The dashed line is a fit of the general form of [1/(1 + Jo/Jmeas)], saturating to zero absorption; the solid line is a fit of the general form [a/(1 + Jo/Jmeas)] + 1 - a, provided to show the general trend of the data saturating to an apparent non-zero background absorption at 1 - a = 0.37 (grey horizontal line). The dotted lines show the linear projection of these fits at low fluences. The actual saturation fluence after deconvolving the effect of the Gaussian beam shape is Jmeas /2 in each case as discussed in the text.

Equations (6)

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Δ T C s a t H s a t ( t ) + C s c r H s c r ( t )
H s a t ( t ) = e t / τ s .
I t o t r = 0 J ( r ) A 0 ( 1 J ( r ) J s a t ) 2 π r d r
V ( x , y , t ) / t = D 2 V ( x , y , t )
g 3 ( t ) = V ( r , t ) = 0 R f ( ξ ) G ( r , ξ , t ) d ξ
G ( r , ξ , t ) = 2 R 2 ξ + 2 R 2 n = 1 ξ J 0 2 ( μ n ) J 0 ( μ n r R ) J 0 ( μ n ξ R ) e D μ n 2 t R 2

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