Abstract

We report a novel wide-field imaging method capable of time-correlated single photon counting. It is based on a photon counting image intensifier coupled to an ultra-fast CMOS camera running at 40 kHz frame rate. Using a pulsed excitation source and decaying luminescent sample, the arrival times of hundreds of photons can be determined simultaneously in many pixels with microsecond resolution and reduced photon pile-up. The detection system is mounted on an inverted microscope and applied to time-resolved imaging of Europium-containing polyoxometalate nanoparticles.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  21. K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “Minimization of fixed pattern noise in photon event counting imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2917–2922 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, ““Optimisation of centroiding algorithms for photon event counting imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. A 437, 393–418 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. O. H. W. Siegmund, “High-performance microchannel plate detectors for UV/visible astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 525, 12–16 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Green, J. Harries, G. Wakefield, and R. Taylor, “The Synthesis of Silica Nanospheres Doped with Polyoxometalates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12812–12813 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide Luminescence for Biomedical Analyses and Imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2729–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Petrášek, and K. Suhling, “Photon arrival timing with sub-camera exposure time resolution in wide-field timeresolved photon counting imaging,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24888–24901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Bub, M. Tecza, M. Helmes, P. Lee, and P. Kohl, “Temporal pixel multiplexing for simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 209–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Festy, S. M. Ameer-Beg, T. Ng, and K. Suhling, “Imaging proteins in vivo using fluorescence lifetime microscopy,” Mol. Biosyst. 3, 381–391 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Hutchings, J. Postma, D. Asquin, and D. Leahy, “Photon Event Centroiding with UV Photon-counting Detectors,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1152–1162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Kolin, and P. W. Wiseman, “Advances in Image Correlation Spectroscopy: Measuring Number Densities, Aggregation States, and Dynamics of Fluorescently labeled Macromolecules in Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 49, 141–164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. V. Werts, “Making sense of lanthanide luminescence,” Sci. Prog. 88, 101–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Hemmilä, and V. Laitala, “Progress in Lanthanides as Luminescent Probes,” J. Fluoresc. 15, 529–542 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, J. Harries, G. Wakefield, and R. Taylor, “The Synthesis of Silica Nanospheres Doped with Polyoxometalates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12812–12813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, “High-performance microchannel plate detectors for UV/visible astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 525, 12–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “Minimization of fixed pattern noise in photon event counting imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2917–2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, and C. G. Morgan, “Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging,” J. Microsc. 206, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Lees, and G. W. Fraser, “Efficiency enhancements for MCP-based beta autoradiography imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 239–243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Selvin, “Principles and Biophysical Applications of Lanthanide-Based Probes,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 31, 275–302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, ““Optimisation of centroiding algorithms for photon event counting imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. A 437, 393–418 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. Vereb, E. Jares-Erijman, P. R. Selvin, and T. M. Jovin, “Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Imaging Microscopy of Lanthanide Chelates,” Biophys. J. 74, 2210–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. L. Joseph, “UV Image sensors and associated technologies,” Exp. Astron. 6, 97–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

H. W. Kröger, G. K. Schmidt, and N. Pailer, “Faint object camera: European contribution to the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astronaut. Acta 26, 827–834 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Sharp, “Millisecond time resolution with the Kitt Peak photon-counting array,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 104, 263–269 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time-resolved imaging microscopy,” Biophys. J. 60, 1374–1387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. D. Peacock, and T. J. R. Weakley, “Heteropolytungstate Complexes of the Lanthanide Elements. Part I. Preparation and Reactions,” J. Chem. Soc. A 11, 1836–1839 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Agronskaia, A. V.

H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahr, L.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Airey, R. W.

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “Minimization of fixed pattern noise in photon event counting imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2917–2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, ““Optimisation of centroiding algorithms for photon event counting imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. A 437, 393–418 (1999).

Ameer-Beg, S. M.

F. Festy, S. M. Ameer-Beg, T. Ng, and K. Suhling, “Imaging proteins in vivo using fluorescence lifetime microscopy,” Mol. Biosyst. 3, 381–391 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time-resolved imaging microscopy,” Biophys. J. 60, 1374–1387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asquin, D.

J. B. Hutchings, J. Postma, D. Asquin, and D. Leahy, “Photon Event Centroiding with UV Photon-counting Detectors,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1152–1162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asselbergs, N. A. H.

H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballardini, R.

R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Balzani, V.

R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, R. E.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolletta, F.

R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Botchway, S. W.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, P. T.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Breeveld, A.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breeveld, A. A.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broos, P. S.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bub, G.

G. Bub, M. Tecza, M. Helmes, P. Lee, and P. Kohl, “Temporal pixel multiplexing for simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 209–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bünzli, J.-C. G.

J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide Luminescence for Biomedical Analyses and Imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2729–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, M.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carter, M. J.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, M. K.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charnley, M.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clegg, R. M.

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time-resolved imaging microscopy,” Biophys. J. 60, 1374–1387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colhoun, M.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cordova, F. A.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cropper, M. S.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Festy, F.

F. Festy, S. M. Ameer-Beg, T. Ng, and K. Suhling, “Imaging proteins in vivo using fluorescence lifetime microscopy,” Mol. Biosyst. 3, 381–391 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fordham, J.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

J. E. Lees, and G. W. Fraser, “Efficiency enhancements for MCP-based beta autoradiography imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 239–243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. C.

H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M.

M. Green, J. Harries, G. Wakefield, and R. Taylor, “The Synthesis of Silica Nanospheres Doped with Polyoxometalates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12812–12813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hancock, B. K.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harries, J.

M. Green, J. Harries, G. Wakefield, and R. Taylor, “The Synthesis of Silica Nanospheres Doped with Polyoxometalates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12812–12813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, R. A.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hashino, K.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haycock, J. W.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmes, M.

G. Bub, M. Tecza, M. Helmes, P. Lee, and P. Kohl, “Temporal pixel multiplexing for simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 209–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmilä, I.

I. Hemmilä, and V. Laitala, “Progress in Lanthanides as Luminescent Probes,” J. Fluoresc. 15, 529–542 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holland, S. T.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hosoya, C.

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huckle, H.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huckle, H. E.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hungerford, G.

K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hunsberger, S. D.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, J. B.

J. B. Hutchings, J. Postma, D. Asquin, and D. Leahy, “Photon Event Centroiding with UV Photon-counting Detectors,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1152–1162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikawa, K.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, M.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanushkina, M.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jares-Erijman, E.

G. Vereb, E. Jares-Erijman, P. R. Selvin, and T. M. Jovin, “Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Imaging Microscopy of Lanthanide Chelates,” Biophys. J. 74, 2210–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, C. L.

C. L. Joseph, “UV Image sensors and associated technologies,” Exp. Astron. 6, 97–127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

G. Vereb, E. Jares-Erijman, P. R. Selvin, and T. M. Jovin, “Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Imaging Microscopy of Lanthanide Chelates,” Biophys. J. 74, 2210–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time-resolved imaging microscopy,” Biophys. J. 60, 1374–1387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, H.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennea, J.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, T.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, T. E.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kent, B. J.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Killough, R.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. S.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, P.

G. Bub, M. Tecza, M. Helmes, P. Lee, and P. Kohl, “Temporal pixel multiplexing for simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 209–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolin, D. L.

D. L. Kolin, and P. W. Wiseman, “Advances in Image Correlation Spectroscopy: Measuring Number Densities, Aggregation States, and Dynamics of Fluorescently labeled Macromolecules in Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 49, 141–164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kröger, H. W.

H. W. Kröger, G. K. Schmidt, and N. Pailer, “Faint object camera: European contribution to the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astronaut. Acta 26, 827–834 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laitala, V.

I. Hemmilä, and V. Laitala, “Progress in Lanthanides as Luminescent Probes,” J. Fluoresc. 15, 529–542 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leahy, D.

J. B. Hutchings, J. Postma, D. Asquin, and D. Leahy, “Photon Event Centroiding with UV Photon-counting Detectors,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1152–1162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

G. Bub, M. Tecza, M. Helmes, P. Lee, and P. Kohl, “Temporal pixel multiplexing for simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 209–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lees, J. E.

J. E. Lees, and G. W. Fraser, “Efficiency enhancements for MCP-based beta autoradiography imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 477, 239–243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marriott, G.

G. Marriott, R. M. Clegg, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Time-resolved imaging microscopy,” Biophys. J. 60, 1374–1387 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, K. O.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mclelland, M. K.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A. C.

A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, and C. G. Morgan, “Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging,” J. Microsc. 206, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mittaz, J.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, B. L.

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “Minimization of fixed pattern noise in photon event counting imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2917–2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, ““Optimisation of centroiding algorithms for photon event counting imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. A 437, 393–418 (1999).

Morgan, C. G.

A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, and C. G. Morgan, “Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging,” J. Microsc. 206, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Much, R.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mulazzani, Q. G.

R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. G.

A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, and C. G. Morgan, “Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging,” J. Microsc. 206, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T.

F. Festy, S. M. Ameer-Beg, T. Ng, and K. Suhling, “Imaging proteins in vivo using fluorescence lifetime microscopy,” Mol. Biosyst. 3, 381–391 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, T.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nousek, J. A.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pailer, N.

H. W. Kröger, G. K. Schmidt, and N. Pailer, “Faint object camera: European contribution to the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astronaut. Acta 26, 827–834 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pandel, D.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. W.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchett, B. E.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, R. D.

R. D. Peacock, and T. J. R. Weakley, “Heteropolytungstate Complexes of the Lanthanide Elements. Part I. Preparation and Reactions,” J. Chem. Soc. A 11, 1836–1839 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Petrášek, Z.

Phillips, D.

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pike, C. D.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Postma, J.

J. B. Hutchings, J. Postma, D. Asquin, and D. Leahy, “Photon Event Centroiding with UV Photon-counting Detectors,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1152–1162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Priedhorsky, W. C.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pryzby, M. S.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Read, P. D.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, R. M.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, D. L.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roming, P. W. A.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasseen, T.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, G. K.

H. W. Kröger, G. K. Schmidt, and N. Pailer, “Faint object camera: European contribution to the Hubble Space Telescope,” Astronaut. Acta 26, 827–834 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Selvin, P. R.

P. R. Selvin, “Principles and Biophysical Applications of Lanthanide-Based Probes,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 31, 275–302 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vereb, E. Jares-Erijman, P. R. Selvin, and T. M. Jovin, “Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Imaging Microscopy of Lanthanide Chelates,” Biophys. J. 74, 2210–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, N. A.

N. A. Sharp, “Millisecond time resolution with the Kitt Peak photon-counting array,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 104, 263–269 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shearer, A.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shirey, R.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, “High-performance microchannel plate detectors for UV/visible astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 525, 12–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. J.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soto, J. C.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Still, M. D.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stock, J.

P. W. A. Roming, T. E. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, L. Ahr, R. E. Bingham, P. S. Broos, M. J. Carter, B. K. Hancock, H. E. Huckle, S. D. Hunsberger, H. Kawakami, R. Killough, T. S. Koch, M. K. Mclelland, K. Smith, P. J. Smith, J. C. Soto, P. T. Boyd, A. A. Breeveld, S. T. Holland, M. Ivanushkina, M. S. Pryzby, M. D. Still, and J. Stock, “The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suhling, K.

Z. Petrášek, and K. Suhling, “Photon arrival timing with sub-camera exposure time resolution in wide-field timeresolved photon counting imaging,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24888–24901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Festy, S. M. Ameer-Beg, T. Ng, and K. Suhling, “Imaging proteins in vivo using fluorescence lifetime microscopy,” Mol. Biosyst. 3, 381–391 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “Minimization of fixed pattern noise in photon event counting imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2917–2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suhling, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, ““Optimisation of centroiding algorithms for photon event counting imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. A 437, 393–418 (1999).

Sumitomo, K.

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swinyard, B. M.

P. D. Read, M. K. Carter, C. D. Pike, R. A. Harrison, B. J. Kent, B. M. Swinyard, B. E. Patchett, R. M. Redfern, A. Shearer, and M. Colhoun, “Uses of microchannel plate intensified detectors for imaging applications in the X-ray, EUV and visible wavelength regions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 392, 359–363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

M. Green, J. Harries, G. Wakefield, and R. Taylor, “The Synthesis of Silica Nanospheres Doped with Polyoxometalates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12812–12813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tecza, M.

G. Bub, M. Tecza, M. Helmes, P. Lee, and P. Kohl, “Temporal pixel multiplexing for simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution imaging,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 209–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venturi, M.

R. Ballardini, Q. G. Mulazzani, M. Venturi, F. Bolletta, and V. Balzani, “Photophysical Characterization of the Decatungstoeuropate(9-) Anion,” Inorg. Chem. 23(3), 300–305 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vereb, G.

G. Vereb, E. Jares-Erijman, P. R. Selvin, and T. M. Jovin, “Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Imaging Microscopy of Lanthanide Chelates,” Biophys. J. 74, 2210–2222 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vreux, J.-M.

K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wakefield, G.

M. Green, J. Harries, G. Wakefield, and R. Taylor, “The Synthesis of Silica Nanospheres Doped with Polyoxometalates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12812–12813 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, J. E.

A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, and C. G. Morgan, “Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging,” J. Microsc. 206, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. L.

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weakley, T. J. R.

R. D. Peacock, and T. J. R. Weakley, “Heteropolytungstate Complexes of the Lanthanide Elements. Part I. Preparation and Reactions,” J. Chem. Soc. A 11, 1836–1839 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, J. A.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werts, M. H. V.

M. H. V. Werts, “Making sense of lanthanide luminescence,” Sci. Prog. 88, 101–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. G.

S. W. Botchway, M. Charnley, J. W. Haycock, A. W. Parker, D. L. Rochester, J. A. Weinstein, and J. A. G. Williams, “Time-resolved and two-photon emission imaging microscopy of live cells with inert platinum complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 16071–16076 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiseman, P. W.

D. L. Kolin, and P. W. Wiseman, “Advances in Image Correlation Spectroscopy: Measuring Number Densities, Aggregation States, and Dynamics of Fluorescently labeled Macromolecules in Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 49, 141–164 (2007).
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Yamaguchi, Y.

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T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
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T. Nishioka, J. L. Yuan, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sumitomo, Z. Wang, K. Hashino, C. Hosoya, K. Ikawa, G. L. Wang, and K. Matsumoto, “New Luminescent Europium(III) Chelates for DNA Labeling,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4088–4096 (2006).
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Anal. Sci. (1)

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Hashino, M. Ito, K. Ikawa, T. Nishioka, and K. Matsumoto, “Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis and Hydroxyethyl Cellurose Gel Capillary Electrophoresis of Luminescent Lanthanide Chelate-labeled Proteins with Time-Resolved Detection,” Anal. Sci. 25, 327–332 (2009).
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Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

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K. O. Mason, A. Breeveld, R. Much, M. Carter, F. A. Cordova, M. S. Cropper, J. Fordham, H. Huckle, C. Ho, H. Kawakami, J. Kennea, T. Kennedy, J. Mittaz, D. Pandel, W. C. Priedhorsky, T. Sasseen, R. Shirey, P. Smith, and J.-M. Vreux, “The XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 365, L36–L44 (2001).
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Cell Biochem. Biophys. (1)

D. L. Kolin, and P. W. Wiseman, “Advances in Image Correlation Spectroscopy: Measuring Number Densities, Aggregation States, and Dynamics of Fluorescently labeled Macromolecules in Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 49, 141–164 (2007).
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Chem. Rev. (1)

J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide Luminescence for Biomedical Analyses and Imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110, 2729–2755 (2010).
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A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, and C. G. Morgan, “Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging,” J. Microsc. 206, 225–232 (2002).
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H. C. Gerritsen, N. A. H. Asselbergs, A. V. Agronskaia, and W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in scanning microscopes: acquisition speed, photon economy and lifetime resolution,” J. Microsc. 206, 218–224 (2002).
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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Suhling, G. Hungerford, R. W. Airey, and B. L. Morgan, “A position-sensitive photon event counting detector applied to fluorescence imaging of dyes in sol-gel matrices,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 131–141 (2001).
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Mol. Biosyst. (1)

F. Festy, S. M. Ameer-Beg, T. Ng, and K. Suhling, “Imaging proteins in vivo using fluorescence lifetime microscopy,” Mol. Biosyst. 3, 381–391 (2007).
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Nat. Methods (1)

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N. A. Hosny, D. A. Lee, and M. M. Knight, “Extracellular oxygen concentration mapping with confocal multiphoton laser scanning microscope and TCSPC card,” Proc. SPIE 7569, 756932–1 - 756932–6 (2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental set up. The pulsed laser is synchronized with the frame acquisition at a rate of up to 250 kHz. [26]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical characteristics of the image intensifier performance, obtained by imaging a flat field at 30 kHz frame rate and 256×256 pixels. (a) Single photons on 30 μs exposure time frame. (b) The photon events have different intensities as illustrated by a photon event pulse height distribution. (c) A flat field, the sum of all frames. (d) A photon arrival time plot shows a mean of 174 photons detected per frame. (e) Photon arrival time plot with a logarithmic time axis over five orders of magnitude. (f) Distribution of the number of photons per frame, and the corresponding Poissonian fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Using a pulsed laser, the arrival times of photons after an excitation pulse can be determined with microsecond resolution in all pixels in parallel. (a) A Eu-POM lifetime image and lifetime histogram. The scalebar is 100 μm. (b) A decay of Europium-containing polyoxometalate (POM) nanoparticles [28] after 256 excitation pulses averaged over the whole field of view. (c) Distribution of photons detected after a single laser excitation pulse, showing up to 5 detected photons on a single pixel in an image. (d) Semi-logarithmic bar graph of the overall distribution of all detected photons in (c).

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