Abstract

Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers with different media enables a plethora of possibilities in linear and nonlinear optics. Using two-photon direct-laser writing we demonstrate full flexibility of individual closing of holes and subsequent filling of photonic crystal fibers with highly nonlinear liquids. We experimentally demonstrate solitonic supercontinuum generation over 600nm bandwidth using a compact femtosecond oscillator as pump source. Encapsulating our fibers at the ends we realize a compact ultrafast nonlinear optofluidic device. Our work is fundamentally important to the field of nonlinear optics as it provides a new platform for investigations of spatio-temporal nonlinear effects and underpins new applications in sensing and communications. Selective filling of different linear and nonlinear liquids, metals, gases, gain media, and liquid crystals into photonic crystal fibers will be the basis of new reconfigurable and versatile optical fiber devices with unprecedented performance. Control over both temporal and spatial dispersion as well as linear and nonlinear coupling will lead to the generation of spatial-temporal solitons, so-called optical bullets.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

F. Ye, Y. V. Kartashov, B. Hu, and L. Torner, "Light bullets in Bessel optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity," Opt. Express 17, 11328-11334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, and D. K. C. Wu, "Fluid-filled solid-core photonic bandgap fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1617-1630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Heinrich, Y. V. Kartashov, L. P. R. Ramirez, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, "Observation of two-dimensional superlattice solitons," Opt. Lett. 34, 3701-3703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hoos, T. P. Meyrath, S. Li, B. Braun, and H. Giessen, "Femtosecond 5-W Yb:KGW slab laser oscillator pumped by a single broad-area diode and its application as supercontinuum source," Appl. Phys. B 96, 5-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Heinrich, Y. V. Kartashov, L. P. R. Ramirez, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, "Two-dimensional solitons at interfaces between binary superlattices and homogeneous lattices," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063832 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. Russell, "Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. P. Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. Russell, "Waveguiding and plasmon resonances in two-dimensional photonic lattices of gold and silver nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Rasmussen, A. A. Sukhorukov, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, J. Laegsgaard, and Y. Kivshar, "Spatiotemporal control of light by Bloch-mode dispersion in multi-core fibers," Opt. Express 16, 5878-5891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. dos Santos, and J. Travers, "Supercontinuum in a water-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 16, 9671-9676 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, and H. Giessen, "Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 6800-6812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

K. Itho, Y. Toda, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Coherent optical control of molecular motion using polarized sequential pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6448-6451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Samoc, "Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6167-6174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, and K. P. Hansen, "Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1879-1881 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, "Optical device based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 11, 2589-2596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and W. Karl, "Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

A. V. Husakou, and J. Hermann, "Supercontinuum generation of high-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

1996

1995

N. Akhmediev, and M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602-2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1979

P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical Kerr effect in liquids," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1924

J. W. Ellis, "The near infra-red absorption spectra of some organic liquids," Phys. Rev. 23, 48-62 (1924).
[CrossRef]

1912

H. H. Marvin, "The selective transmission and the dispersion of the liquid chlorides," Phys. Rev. 34, 161-186 (1912).

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, and M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602-2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical Kerr effect in liquids," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alfimov, M. V.

A. A. Voronin, V. P. Mitrokhin, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, V. I. Beloglazov, M. V. Alfimov, H. Ludvigsen, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Understanding the nonlinear-optical response of a liquid-core photonic-crystal fiber," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 46-49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and W. Karl, "Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beloglazov, V. I.

A. A. Voronin, V. P. Mitrokhin, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, V. I. Beloglazov, M. V. Alfimov, H. Ludvigsen, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Understanding the nonlinear-optical response of a liquid-core photonic-crystal fiber," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 46-49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennet, F. H.

Bethge, J.

Bjarklev, A.

Bolger, J. A.

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and W. Karl, "Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botten, L. C.

Bozolan, A.

Braun, B.

F. Hoos, T. P. Meyrath, S. Li, B. Braun, and H. Giessen, "Femtosecond 5-W Yb:KGW slab laser oscillator pumped by a single broad-area diode and its application as supercontinuum source," Appl. Phys. B 96, 5-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Crespi, V. H.

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Tostenrude, J.

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Travers, J.

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M. Heinrich, Y. V. Kartashov, L. P. R. Ramirez, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, "Two-dimensional solitons at interfaces between binary superlattices and homogeneous lattices," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063832 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Heinrich, Y. V. Kartashov, L. P. R. Ramirez, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, "Observation of two-dimensional superlattice solitons," Opt. Lett. 34, 3701-3703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyagi, H. K.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. Russell, "Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, L. P. Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. Russell, "Waveguiding and plasmon resonances in two-dimensional photonic lattices of gold and silver nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 77, 033417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and W. Karl, "Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voronin, A. A.

A. A. Voronin, V. P. Mitrokhin, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, V. I. Beloglazov, M. V. Alfimov, H. Ludvigsen, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Understanding the nonlinear-optical response of a liquid-core photonic-crystal fiber," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 46-49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

M. Heinrich, Y. V. Kartashov, L. P. R. Ramirez, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, "Observation of two-dimensional superlattice solitons," Opt. Lett. 34, 3701-3703 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Heinrich, Y. V. Kartashov, L. P. R. Ramirez, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, "Two-dimensional solitons at interfaces between binary superlattices and homogeneous lattices," Phys. Rev. A 80, 063832 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Y.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and W. Karl, "Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
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Westbrook, P. S.

White, T. P.

Windeler, R. S.

C. Kerbage, P. Steinvurzel, P. Reyes, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, and B. J. Eggleton, "Highly tunable birefringent microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 842-844 (2002).
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Wittorf, R.

Won, D.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
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Xiao, L.

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C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

K. Itho, Y. Toda, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Coherent optical control of molecular motion using polarized sequential pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6448-6451 (2004).
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Young, P.

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P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

Zhao, C.

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. A. Voronin, V. P. Mitrokhin, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, V. I. Beloglazov, M. V. Alfimov, H. Ludvigsen, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Understanding the nonlinear-optical response of a liquid-core photonic-crystal fiber," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 46-49 (2010).
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Zhou, Z.

Zimmermann, K.

Appl. Phys. B

F. Hoos, T. P. Meyrath, S. Li, B. Braun, and H. Giessen, "Femtosecond 5-W Yb:KGW slab laser oscillator pumped by a single broad-area diode and its application as supercontinuum source," Appl. Phys. B 96, 5-10 (2009).
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H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. St. Russell, "Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
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J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Itho, Y. Toda, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Coherent optical control of molecular motion using polarized sequential pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 6448-6451 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

A. A. Voronin, V. P. Mitrokhin, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, V. I. Beloglazov, M. V. Alfimov, H. Ludvigsen, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Understanding the nonlinear-optical response of a liquid-core photonic-crystal fiber," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 46-49 (2010).
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C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
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Nature

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
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J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
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C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and W. Karl, "Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

We chose CCl4 for our nonlinear experiments because with the available photonic crystal NL-2.3-790 and our liquids, CCl4 was the only one to provide anomalous dispersion at our pump wavelength of 1030nm.

In principle, we operate at this wavelength under multimode conditions, but straight in coupling and a straight fiber supports the fundamental mode.

NKT Photonics, http://www.nktphotonics.com/files/files/NL-23-790.pdf.

MicroChem, http://www.microchem.com/products/su$_$eight.htm.

N. K. T. Photonics, http://www.nktphotonics.com/files/files/LMA-8-100409.pdf.

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, Hoboken, 2003).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2007).

C. Conti, M. Schmidt, P. St. Russell, and F. Biancalana, "Linearons: highly non-instantaneous solitons in liquidcore photonic crystal fibers," arXiv:1010.0331v1 [physics.optics], http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.0331.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the ultrafast nonlinear optofluidic device. Checkerboard pattern of liquid strands embedded in a PCF acting as nonlinear waveguides. The red light is coupled in and after several centimeters of propagation spectrally broadened light leaves each liquid waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), Scheme of the direct laser writing technique applied on the photonic structure of a PCF. (b), Name of our institute written in a NL-2.3-790 with a hole diameter of 2.5μm and a hole-to-hole distance of 2.6μm. (c), Checkerboard pattern as the most complex structure also in a NL-2.3-790. (d), Scanning electron microscope picture of the checkerboard pattern, which proves the good sealing of the strands by the cured polymer. (e), Schematic cross section of the filling setup: the structured fiber end is held in the liquid reservoir. The unblocked holes are filled by the capillary force whereas the blocked strands stay unfilled. (f), Three toluene filled rings embedded in a LMA-8 with a hole diameter of 2.7μm and a hole-to-hole distance of 5.6μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), Simple setup of our optofluidic device, with both ends closed by UV glue after liquid filling. (b), Mode image of the single strand structure in a NL-2.3-790 fiber filled with CCl4 illuminated with a cw HeNe-Laser at 633nm wavelength. It shows clearly that the light propagates in the fundamental mode. (c), Mode image of the three ring structure [Fig. 2(f)] encapsulated in a LMA-8 fiber filled with toluene and illuminated at 1064nm. The light in each waveguide is propagating in the LP11 mode. Strong coupling occurs from strand to strand within each ring and weaker coupling between the rings themselves. Apart from that, all liquid strands indeed act as waveguides. For (b) and (c) the structure of the underlying photonic crystal fiber is schematically superimposed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), Spectral evolution for different input powers of a 26cm long fiber with a single strand filled with CCl4 and with a core diameter of 2.5μm. The pump power was increased from 10mW to 100mW, while spectral broadening could be observed. For the highest incoupled power of 100mW a 600nm wide spectrum could be obtained. Because the fiber is pumped in the anomalous dispersion regime, solitons can form. The red shifting soliton in the near infrared wavelength regime as well as the corresponding non-solitonic radiation in the blue wavelength regime [44] could be measured. (b), Comparison between measurement and simulation of a 19cm long fiber with a single strand filled with CCl4 with a core diameter of 2.5μm and pumped with an input power of 330mW. (c), Comparison of different core media. As core medium fused silica and CCl4 in a 19cm long fiber were used. The core size for both fibers was 2.5μm and the incoupled power was 330mW. Additionally the dispersion curve for both fibers is also shown. Here one can see that the pump wavelength of 1030nm lies in the anomalous dispersion regime.

Equations (1)

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A z k = 2 7 i k + 1 k ! β k k A T k = i γ ( 1 + i τ schock T ) ( A ( z , t ) R ( T ) | A ( z , T T ) | 2 d T ) .

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