Abstract

We report a new approach to mimic basic functionalities of a neuron using a 1550 nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) which is based on the polarisation switching (PS) that can be induced in these devices when subject to polarised optical injection. Positive and negative all-optical threshold operations are demonstrated experimentally using external optical injection into the two orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental transverse mode. The polarisation of the light emitted by the device is used to determine the state of the VCSEL-Neuron, active (orthogonal) or inactive (parallel). This approach forms a new way to reproduce optically the response of a neuron to an excitatory and an inhibitory stimulus.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. McAulay, “Modeling the brain with laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6776, B7750 (2007).
  3. F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, “Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4010–4013 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. R. S. Romariz and K. H. Wagner, “Tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with feedback to implement a pulsed neural model. 1. Principles and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4736–4745 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. R. S. Romariz and K. H. Wagner, “Tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with feedback to implement a pulsed neural model. 2. High-frequency effects and optical coupling,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4746–4753 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. M. Izhikevich, “Which model to use for cortical spiking neurons?” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15(5), 1063–1070 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two wavelength switching with a 1.55μm-VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 155 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Hurtado, A. Quirce, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and M. J. Adams, “Power and wavelength polarization bistability with very wide hysteresis cycles in a 1550 nm-VCSEL subject to orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23637–23642 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4502–4513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two wavelength switching with a 1.55μm-VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4502–4513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. M. Izhikevich, “Which model to use for cortical spiking neurons?” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15(5), 1063–1070 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, “Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4010–4013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, M. J.

Blüm, M. W.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buldú, J. M.

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Huys, O.

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danckaert, J.

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Waardt, H.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erneux, T.

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, I.

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Ojalvo, J.

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gollo, L. L.

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez-Molina, M.

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-S.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henning, I. D.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Different forms of wavelength polarization switching and bistability in a 155 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under orthogonally polarized optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 365–367 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two wavelength switching with a 1.55μm-VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoppenbrouwers, J. L.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoppensteadt, F. C.

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, “Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4010–4013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurtado, A.

Izhikevich, E. M.

E. M. Izhikevich, “Which model to use for cortical spiking neurons?” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15(5), 1063–1070 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, “Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4010–4013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

Kwon, O.-K.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-H.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McAulay, A. D.

A. D. McAulay, “Modeling the brain with laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6776, B7750 (2007).

Mirasso, C. R.

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mos, E. C.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.-R.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peil, M.

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pesquera, L.

A. Hurtado, A. Quirce, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and M. J. Adams, “Power and wavelength polarization bistability with very wide hysteresis cycles in a 1550 nm-VCSEL subject to orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23637–23642 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pipa, G.

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quirce, A.

Romariz, A. R. S.

Schleipen, J. B.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torrent, M. C.

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valle, A.

A. Hurtado, A. Quirce, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and M. J. Adams, “Power and wavelength polarization bistability with very wide hysteresis cycles in a 1550 nm-VCSEL subject to orthogonal optical injection,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23637–23642 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vicente, R.

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, K. H.

Yoo, B. S.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, B.-S.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chaos

O. D’Huys, R. Vicente, T. Erneux, J. Danckaert, and I. Fischer, “Synchronization properties of network motifs: influence of coupling delay and symmetry,” Chaos 18(3), 037116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two wavelength switching with a 1.55μm-VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, M. Gomez-Molina, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization bistability in 1550nm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 895–902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. H. Jeong, K. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, B. S. Yoo, and K. A. Shore, “Optical injection-induced polarization switching dynamics in 1.5 μm wavelength single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 779–781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw.

E. C. Mos, J. L. Hoppenbrouwers, M. T. Hill, M. W. Blüm, J. B. Schleipen, and H. de Waardt, “Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 11(4), 988–996 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Izhikevich, “Which model to use for cortical spiking neurons?” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 15(5), 1063–1070 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M.-R. Park, O.-K. Kwon, W.-S. Han, K.-H. Lee, S.-J. Park, and B.-S. Yoo, “All-monolithic 1.55μm InAlGaAs/InP vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1–3), L8–L10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, “Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4010–4013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Fischer, R. Vicente, J. M. Buldú, M. Peil, C. R. Mirasso, M. C. Torrent, and J. García-Ojalvo, “Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 123902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

R. Vicente, L. L. Gollo, C. R. Mirasso, I. Fischer, and G. Pipa, “Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(44), 17157–17162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. D. McAulay, “Modeling the brain with laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6776, B7750 (2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) L-I Curve and (b) optical spectrum of the 1550 nm VCSEL measured at 298 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operation principle of the VCSEL-Neuron under (a) an excitatory and (b) an inhibitory stimulus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of the VCSEL-Neuron to an excitatory stimulus (orthogonally-polarised signal). Three different detunings (λ⊥VCSEL) are set: (a) 0 nm, (b) 0.02 nm and (c) 0.034 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response of the VCSEL-Neuron to an inhibitory stimulus (parallel polarised signal). Three different detunings (λ////VCSEL) are set: (a) 0.01 nm, (b) 0.026 nm and (c) 0.034 nm. Initially the VCSEL-Neuron is under the influence of an excitatory stimulus with power of Pin⊥ = 15 μW and detuning of λ⊥VCSEL = 0 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the polarisation state at the output of the VCSEL optical neuron under the arrival of (a) an excitatory and (b) an inhibitory stimulus.

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