Abstract

Fourier-holographic light scattering spectroscopy is applied to record complex angular scattering spectra of two- and three-dimensional samples over a wide field of view. We introduce a computational depth sectioning technique and, for the first time, demonstrate that a single-exposure hologram can generate a quantitative, three-dimensional map of particle sizes and locations over several cubic millimeters with micrometer resolution. Such spatially resolved maps of particle sizes are generated by Mie-inversion and could not be ascertained from the directly reconstructed intensity-distribution images. We also demonstrate synthesis of multiple angular scattering intensity spectra to increase the angular range and improve size detection sensitivity.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

2009

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and A. Stern, “Automated three-dimensional identification and tracking of micro/nanobiological organisms by computational holographic microscopy,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 990–1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Dai, X. D. Luo, and Y. W. Wang, “Multiple light scattering of non-spherical particles with elliptical cross section,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 3864–3869 (2009).

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. C. Wu, G. Gréhan, S. Meunier-Guttin-Cluzel, L. H. Chen, and K. F. Cen, “Sizing of particles smaller than 5 microm in digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 857–859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7873–7892 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, K. Choi, D. L. Marks, R. Horisaki, and S. Lim, “Compressive holography,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13040–13049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, M.

Berg, M. J.

Bigio, I. J.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C. W.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, D. J.

Bronk, B. V.

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cen, K. F.

Chen, K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. H.

Cheong, F. C.

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

Cipolloni, P. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czégé, J.

Dai, B.

B. Dai, X. D. Luo, and Y. W. Wang, “Multiple light scattering of non-spherical particles with elliptical cross section,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 3864–3869 (2009).

Daneshpanah, M.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and A. Stern, “Automated three-dimensional identification and tracking of micro/nanobiological organisms by computational holographic microscopy,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 990–1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H. F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Erlinger, A.

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, T. H.

Freedman, S. D.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giacomelli, M. G.

Goldberg, M. J.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gossage, K.

Graf, R. N.

Gréhan, G.

Grier, D. G.

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurton, K. P.

Gutzler, T.

Hanlon, E. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

Hillman, T. R.

Horisaki, R.

Huang, G.

Itzkan, I.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and A. Stern, “Automated three-dimensional identification and tracking of micro/nanobiological organisms by computational holographic microscopy,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 990–1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. B.

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y. L.

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimerer, L. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larcom, L.

Lee, S. H.

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lim, S.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. D.

B. Dai, X. D. Luo, and Y. W. Wang, “Multiple light scattering of non-spherical particles with elliptical cross section,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 3864–3869 (2009).

Marks, D. L.

McGillican, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGilligan, J. A.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meunier-Guttin-Cluzel, S.

Milham, M. E.

Moon, I.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and A. Stern, “Automated three-dimensional identification and tracking of micro/nanobiological organisms by computational holographic microscopy,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 990–1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nines, R.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ollero, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Roichman, Y.

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

Steele, V. E.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Stern, A.

I. Moon, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and A. Stern, “Automated three-dimensional identification and tracking of micro/nanobiological organisms by computational holographic microscopy,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 990–1010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoner, G. D.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Su, T. W.

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, D. K.

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Blaaderen, A.

Van Dam, J.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van De Merwe, W. P.

van Oostrum, P.

Videen, G.

Vitkin, E.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. W.

B. Dai, X. D. Luo, and Y. W. Wang, “Multiple light scattering of non-spherical particles with elliptical cross section,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 3864–3869 (2009).

Wang, Z.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Wilson, J. D.

Wu, X. C.

Xiao, K.

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. M.

Yi, G. R.

Zaman, M. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. Z.

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Phys. Sin.

B. Dai, X. D. Luo, and Y. W. Wang, “Multiple light scattering of non-spherical particles with elliptical cross section,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 3864–3869 (2009).

Appl. Opt.

Cancer Res.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 267–276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dairy Sci.

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, and D. G. Grier, “Technical note: characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92(1), 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

S. Seo, T. W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

T. R. Hillman, S. A. Alexandrov, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Microscopic particle discrimination using spatially-resolved Fourier-holographic light scattering angular spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11088–11102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express 5(13), 302–317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf and A. Wax, “Nuclear morphology measurements using Fourier domain low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4693–4698 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, G. Videen, and K. P. Gurton, “Spatial filtering technique to image and measure two-dimensional near-forward scattering from single particles,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9486–9495 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, Y. Roichman, G. R. Yi, S. H. Kim, S. M. Yang, A. van Blaaderen, P. van Oostrum, and D. G. Grier, “Characterizing and tracking single colloidal particles with video holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18275–18282 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperture Fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7873–7892 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, K. Choi, D. L. Marks, R. Horisaki, and S. Lim, “Compressive holography,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13040–13049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generation of angular scattering spectrum for two different scatterer sizes in two layers. The lens L generates a one-to-one map between scattering angle (sample plane) and spatial position (detection plane) and its solid angle limits the range of captured angles. The spectrum is recorded with a CCD camera. The two-dimensional intensity distribution on the detector is a result of the complex addition of scattered wave fronts from layer 1 (green), layer 2 (blue) and the reference wave (not shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependency of average Mie-lobe frequencies on: (a) Particle diameter; and (b) Center collection angle. Data is based on refractive indices n part = 1.59 and n med = 1.42.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram showing the relationship between illumination, scattering and detection angles configured for: a) Transmission; and b) Reflection scattering geometries.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lines of equal scattering angle (red) indicate the distribution of light on the CCD sensor, including the ‘vignetting’ effect of the objective on the sensor with respect to the lowest and highest scattering angles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the optical setup in transmission configuration. L1, L2 and L3 are lenses of the 6-f system, mirrors and beam splitters are labeled M1, 2, 3 and BS, respectively, ND is a neutral density filter, HWP and P are half-wave plate and polarizer, RFS is a rectangular field stop and T a telescopic system with spatial filter (pinhole). The imaging sensor is a charge-coupled device (CCD). Figure 3(a) shows a more detailed view of the sample area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated particle diameters for regions of the two-layer sample: (a) Without thresholding; and (b) With thresholding.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional representation of detected sphere sizes in µm and locations in the 3 × 3 × 1.2 mm volume (displayed sphere sizes not to scale).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Synthesis of ten angular scattering spectra of 2.5 µm spheres (hologram 1-10) and comparison to Mie theory: (a) For the entire reconstruction; and (b) For 121 sub-regions. The gray areas indicate the spread in the measured data.

Equations (2)

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d min = N π arcsin ( NA n med ) ( 46.3 λ 2 79.5 λ + 44.5 ) ,
θ s = θ c arcsin ( sin θ d n med ) = { arcsin ( sin θ i n med ) arcsin ( sin θ d n med ) , 0 θ i < π 2 arccos ( sin θ i n med ) + arccos ( sin θ d n med ) , π 2 θ i < π ,

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