Abstract

We demonstrate the lithographic fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in hybrid SiO2/TiO2 sol-gel glass on 3-D curved surfaces. The concentric circular gratings with periods of 20μm, 10μm and 5μm have been fabricated in sol-gel glass on concave lens by laser direct writing successfully. Continuous 3-Dimensional surface relief with a height of 435nm, 110nm and 50nm has been obtained for the period of 20μm, 10μm and 5μm respectively. The optical test results of the fabricated DOE shows only a little bit deviation from the theoretical calculated results which can be explained by 3-D curved surface effect. We believe this technology can be an effective method to fabricate DOEs with even more complex surface profile on 3-D curved surfaces in terms of its simplicity and costeffectiveness.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat," in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 2199, 193-198 (1994).
  2. T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, "Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).
  3. H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, "Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface," Opt. Express 12(14), 3251-3256 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, "Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces," Proceedings of SPIE 7716 (2010).
  7. P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, "Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses," Appl. Opt. 38(32), 6744-6748 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10Q1(10), 443-448 (2002).
  11. H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Zhao, Y. Xie, S. He, S. Fu, and Z. Lu, "Single step fabrication of microlens arrays with hybrid HfO2-SiO2 solgel glass on conventional lens surface," Opt. Express 13(15), 5846-5852 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, "Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface," Opt. Express 10(20), 1043-1047 (2002).
  14. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, "Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface," Opt. Express 11(9), 992-995 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Yu, and X.-C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821-823 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating," Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840-2844 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, "Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface," Opt. Express 12(14), 3251-3256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Yu, and X.-C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, "Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses," Appl. Opt. 38(32), 6744-6748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating," Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840-2844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, "Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).

Adams, A.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, D.

Brittain, S. T.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Fu, S.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, "Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).

He, S.

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackman, R. J.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kan, S.

Kita, T.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, "Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).

Koudriachov, V.

Lam, Y. L.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Liu, H.

Lu, Z.

Memdes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating," Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840-2844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, S.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, "Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).

Najafi, S. I.

Ngo, N. Q.

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pelissier, S.

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M. G.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

Rantala, J. T.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, H.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

Vähäkangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vernold, C. L.

T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating," Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840-2844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Weng, Z.

Whitesides, G. M.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

Yu, W.

W. Yu, and X.-C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.-C.

W. Yu, and X.-C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10Q1(10), 443-448 (2002).

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yun, Z.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

Zhao, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure," Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

W. Yu, and X.-C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, "Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1-2), 99-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162(4-6), 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, "Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating," Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840-2844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Science (1)

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, "Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures," Science 280(5372), 2089-2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, "Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces," Proceedings of SPIE 7716 (2010).

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, "Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat," in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 2199, 193-198 (1994).

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