Abstract

We demonstrate the lithographic fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in hybrid SiO2/TiO2 sol-gel glass on 3-D curved surfaces. The concentric circular gratings with periods of 20μm, 10μm and 5μm have been fabricated in sol-gel glass on concave lens by laser direct writing successfully. Continuous 3-Dimensional surface relief with a height of 435nm, 110nm and 50nm has been obtained for the period of 20μm, 10μm and 5μm respectively. The optical test results of the fabricated DOE shows only a little bit deviation from the theoretical calculated results which can be explained by 3-D curved surface effect. We believe this technology can be an effective method to fabricate DOEs with even more complex surface profile on 3-D curved surfaces in terms of its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).
  3. H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, “Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3251–3256 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, “Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77160Z, (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38(32), 6744–6748 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, “Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 10(10), 443–448 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  11. H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. Zhao, Y. Xie, S. He, S. Fu, and Z. Lu, “Single step fabrication of microlens arrays with hybrid HfO2-SiO2 sol-gel glass on conventional lens surface,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5846–5852 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1043–1047 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 11(9), 992–995 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. Yu and X.-C. Yuan, “Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821–823 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840–2844 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, “Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77160Z, (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, “Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3251–3256 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yu and X.-C. Yuan, “Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821–823 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38(32), 6744–6748 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Adams, A.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. S.

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M. P.

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blanc, D.

Brittain, S. T.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burge, J. H.

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y. C.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W. C.

Fu, S.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Harada, T.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

He, S.

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jackman, R. J.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kan, S.

Kita, T.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Koudriachov, V.

Lam, Y. L.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Liu, H.

Lu, Z.

Memdes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Milster, T. D.

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moriyama, S.

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Najafi, S. I.

Ngo, N. Q.

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pelissier, S.

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prentiss, M. G.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Que, W. X.

Radtke, D.

D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, “Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77160Z, (2010).
[Crossref]

Rantala, J. T.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schutz, H.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stumpf, M.

D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, “Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77160Z, (2010).
[Crossref]

Tishchenko, A. V.

Vähäkangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vernold, C. L.

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Weng, Z.

Whitesides, G. M.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

Yu, W.

W. Yu and X.-C. Yuan, “Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821–823 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.-C.

W. Yu and X.-C. Yuan, “Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821–823 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, “Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 10(10), 443–448 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yun, Z.

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zeitner, U.

D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, “Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77160Z, (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, F.

Zhao, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34(5), 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

W. Yu and X.-C. Yuan, “Patternable hybrid sol-gel material cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(5), 821–823 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Harada, S. Moriyama, and T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled stigmatic concave gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175–179 (1974).

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 16(1–2), 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162(4–6), 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

T. D. Milster and C. L. Vernold, “Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,” Opt. Eng. 34(10), 2840–2844 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3556–3566 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Radtke, M. Stumpf, and U. Zeitner, “Advances in lithography on non-planar surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77160Z, (2010).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280(5372), 2089–2091 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, “Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,” L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 193–198 (1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of laser direct writer

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The thickness of sol-gel film against the exposure energy

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photo of the fabricated DOE on concave lens surface with the curvature radius of 196mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

200 × magnified images of the fabricated DOEs with the period of 20μm (a), 10μm (b) and 5μm (c) captured by optical microscope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D (a) and 2D (b) surface profiles of the fabricated DOE with 20μm period measured by AFM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D (a) and 2D (b) surface profiles of the fabricated DOE with 10μm period measured by AFM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

3D (a) and 2D (b) surface profiles of the fabricated DOE with 5μm period measured by AFM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffractive patterns of the fabricated DOEs with period of 20μm (a), 10μm (b) and 5μm (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated and measured diffraction efficiency of the fabricated DOE with 20μm period.

Metrics