Abstract

Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) provides precise control of the pulse front tilt (PFT) necessary to achieve nonreciprocal writing in glass wherein the material modification depends on the sample scanning direction with respect to the PFT. The PFT may be adjusted over several orders of magnitude. Using SSTF nonreciprocal writing is observed for a large range of axial focal positions within the sample, and nonreciprocal ablation patterns on the surface of the sample are revealed. Further, the lower numerical aperture (0.03 NA) utilized with SSTF increases the rate of writing.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2010

2009

2008

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Hsu, D. D. Carlo, C. Chen, D. Irimia, and M. Toner, "Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles," Lab Chip 8, 2128-2134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, J.-C. Poulin, and S. Ani-Joseph, "Non reciprocal writing and chirality in femtosecond laser irradiated silica," Opt. Express 16, 18354-18361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short ir laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Osvay, and I. N. Ross, "On a pulse compressor with gratings having arbitrary orientation," Opt. Commun. 105, 271-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Anderson, G. P.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ani-Joseph, S.

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A. Y.

Audouard, E.

Backus, S.

Bado, P.

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10117-10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bricchi, E.

Carlo, D. D.

C.-H. Hsu, D. D. Carlo, C. Chen, D. Irimia, and M. Toner, "Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles," Lab Chip 8, 2128-2134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

Chen, C.

C.-H. Hsu, D. D. Carlo, C. Chen, D. Irimia, and M. Toner, "Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles," Lab Chip 8, 2128-2134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, G.

Cheng, Y.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coughlan, M. A.

Durfee, C. G.

Durst, M.

Erickson, J. S.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short ir laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

Golden, J. P.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, F.

Hilliard, L. R.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Howell, P. B.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-H.

C.-H. Hsu, D. D. Carlo, C. Chen, D. Irimia, and M. Toner, "Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles," Lab Chip 8, 2128-2134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

Irimia, D.

C.-H. Hsu, D. D. Carlo, C. Chen, D. Irimia, and M. Toner, "Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles," Lab Chip 8, 2128-2134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, A.

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, "Polarization diffraction gratings produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass," Opt. Lett. 35, 1662-1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10117-10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kleinfeld, D.

Krol, D. M.

Lancry, M.

Levis, R. J.

Ligler, F. S.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauclair, C.

Midorikawa, K.

Mishchik, K.

Miura, K.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short ir laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nasir, M.

J. P. Golden, J. S. Kim, J. S. Erickson, L. R. Hilliard, P. B. Howell, G. P. Anderson, M. Nasir, and F. S. Ligler, "Multi-wavelength microflow cytometer using groove-generated sheath flow," Lab Chip 9, 1942-1950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, J.

Oron, D.

Osvay, K.

K. Osvay, and I. N. Ross, "On a pulse compressor with gratings having arbitrary orientation," Opt. Commun. 105, 271-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pey, K. L.

Plewicki, M.

Poulin, J.-C.

Poumellec, B.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short ir laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S.

Ross, I. N.

K. Osvay, and I. N. Ross, "On a pulse compressor with gratings having arbitrary orientation," Opt. Commun. 105, 271-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

Sakakura, M.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

Shimotsuma, Y.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 94-104 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Stoian, R.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short ir laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Tal, E.

Tan, C. W.

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toner, M.

C.-H. Hsu, D. D. Carlo, C. Chen, D. Irimia, and M. Toner, "Microvortex for focusing, guiding and sorting of particles," Lab Chip 8, 2128-2134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, P. S.

van Howe, J.

Vitek, D. N.

Wang, F.

Wang, X. C.

Xiong, H.

Xu, C.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, "‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ray-tracing model of the SSTF system. Green, blue and red rays show the central wavelength and the FHWM edges of the spectrum, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The simulated spatio-temporal intensity profile of the pulse at the focal plane where x is along the spatially chirped dimension. (b) The predicted relationship between the pulse front tilt (PFT) and the beam aspect ratio (BAR) for our system

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The orientation of the pulse front tilt at the focal plane (dashed line). The pulse arrives first on the left hand side of the focal spot. The scanning direction for the laser beam with respect to the sample for each written line in (b),(c) is indicated by blue arrows pointing to the left or the right. In (d) the scanning direction was perpendicular to the PFT. Each set of anti-parallel lines was imaged with bright field (top) and cross-polarized illumination (bottom). The orientation of the electric field, E, is marked with arrows in (b)–(d). The scanning rate was 10 μm/s, and the location of the focal plane was 284 μm beneath the surface of the sample. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonreciprocal writing was examined at different focal depths, z, beneath the surface of the sample. Each set of anti-parallel lines was imaged with (a) bright field and (b) cross-polarized illumination. The scan rates for regions 1, 2 and 3 were 5 μm/s, 10 μm/s and 50 μm/s, respectively. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wells (top) or Chevron structures (bottom) were ablated for anti-parallel scanning directions on the back surface of the sample. The scan rates for regions 1, 2 and 3 were 5 μm/s, 10 μm/s and 50 μm/s, respectively. The laser’s electric field was oriented along the scanning direction. The blue arrows coincide with the orientation described in Fig. 3. Scale bar, 50 μm.

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