Abstract

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provides volumetric images of retinal structures with unprecedented detail. Accurate segmentation algorithms and feature quantification in these images, however, are needed to realize the full potential of SD-OCT. The fully automated segmentation algorithm, FloatingCanvas, serves this purpose and performs a volumetric segmentation of retinal tissue layers in three-dimensional image volume acquired around the optic nerve head without requiring any pre-processing. The reconstructed layers are analyzed to extract features such as blood vessels and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness. Findings from images obtained with the RTVue-100 SD-OCT (Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA) indicate that FloatingCanvas is computationally efficient and is robust to the noise and low contrast in the images. The FloatingCanvas segmentation demonstrated good agreement with the human manual grading. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness maps obtained with this method are clinically realistic and highly reproducible compared with time-domain StratusOCTTM.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, K. Y. Kay, S. F. Sandler, D. Xin, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “A comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness obtained with frequency and time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3997–4003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mishra, A. Wong, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “Intra-retinal layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23719–23728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. van Velthoven, D. J. Faber, F. D. Verbraak, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. D. de Smet, “Recent developments in optical coherence tomography for imaging the retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(1), 57–77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. Puliafito, “Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(2), 444–452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. Chan, B. Cense, B. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9480–9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

N. V. Swindale, G. Stjepanovic, A. Chin, and F. S. Mikelberg, “Automated analysis of normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head topography images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(7), 1730–1742 (2000).
[PubMed]

1995 (3)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

G. Golub and W. Kahan, “Calculating the singular value and pseudo-inverse of a matrix,” SIAM Numerical Analysis 63, 205–224 (1965).

Abramoff, M

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abramoff, M. D.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Arthur, S. N.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arya, A. V.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beaton, S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilonick, R. A.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B. E.

Bourne, R. R.

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowd, C.

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budenz, D. L.

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, T. L.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera Fernández, D.

Carpineto, P.

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, R.

Chang, R. T.

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. Z.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

Chin, A.

N. V. Swindale, G. Stjepanovic, A. Chin, and F. S. Mikelberg, “Automated analysis of normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head topography images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(7), 1730–1742 (2000).
[PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Ciancaglini, M.

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clausi, D. A.

Correnti, A.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dastmalchi, S.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Smet, M. D.

M. E. van Velthoven, D. J. Faber, F. D. Verbraak, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. D. de Smet, “Recent developments in optical coherence tomography for imaging the retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(1), 57–77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dolejsi, M.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doronzo, E.

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

M. E. van Velthoven, D. J. Faber, F. D. Verbraak, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. D. de Smet, “Recent developments in optical coherence tomography for imaging the retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(1), 57–77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabritius, T.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falconio, G.

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortune, B.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golub, G.

G. Golub and W. Kahan, “Calculating the singular value and pseudo-inverse of a matrix,” SIAM Numerical Analysis 63, 205–224 (1965).

Götzinger, E.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guedes, V.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haeker, M.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzmark, E.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, K. Y. Kay, S. F. Sandler, D. Xin, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “A comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness obtained with frequency and time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3997–4003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. Puliafito, “Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(2), 444–452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyle Park, B.

Ishikawa, H.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jahanbakhsh, K.

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Joo, C.

Kagemann, L.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahan, W.

G. Golub and W. Kahan, “Calculating the singular value and pseudo-inverse of a matrix,” SIAM Numerical Analysis 63, 205–224 (1965).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kardon, R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kay, K. Y.

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knighton, R.

Knighton, R. W.

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koozekanani, D.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, Y. H.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, D.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. T.

Liebmann, J. M.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, K. Y. Kay, S. F. Sandler, D. Xin, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “A comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness obtained with frequency and time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3997–4003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancini, R.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastropasqua, L.

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattox, C.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medeiros, F. A.

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

Mikelberg, F. S.

N. V. Swindale, G. Stjepanovic, A. Chin, and F. S. Mikelberg, “Automated analysis of normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head topography images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(7), 1730–1742 (2000).
[PubMed]

Mishra, A.

Miura, M.

Mujat, M.

Myllylä, R.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nicholas, P.

Niemeijer, M.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pakter, H. M.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pedut-Kloizman, T.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quellec, G.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raza, A. S.

Ritch, R.

D. C. Hood, A. S. Raza, K. Y. Kay, S. F. Sandler, D. Xin, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “A comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness obtained with frequency and time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3997–4003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, C.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salant, J. A.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, H. M.

Sandler, S. F.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, V. A.

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simader, C.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sonka, M.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, D. M.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stetson, P.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stjepanovic, G.

N. V. Swindale, G. Stjepanovic, A. Chin, and F. S. Mikelberg, “Automated analysis of normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head topography images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(7), 1730–1742 (2000).
[PubMed]

Stock, G.

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K. R.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swindale, N. V.

N. V. Swindale, G. Stjepanovic, A. Chin, and F. S. Mikelberg, “Automated analysis of normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head topography images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(7), 1730–1742 (2000).
[PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tielsch, J. M.

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, C. A.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

M. E. van Velthoven, D. J. Faber, F. D. Verbraak, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. D. de Smet, “Recent developments in optical coherence tomography for imaging the retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(1), 57–77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Velthoven, M. E.

M. E. van Velthoven, D. J. Faber, F. D. Verbraak, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. D. de Smet, “Recent developments in optical coherence tomography for imaging the retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(1), 57–77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Velazquez, L.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verbraak, F. D.

M. E. van Velthoven, D. J. Faber, F. D. Verbraak, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. D. de Smet, “Recent developments in optical coherence tomography for imaging the retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26(1), 57–77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voskanian, S.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, A.

Wu, X.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haeker, M. Sonka, R. Kardon, V. A. Shah, X. Wu, and M Abramoff, “Automated segmentation of intraretinal layers from macular optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 6512, 651214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xin, D.

Xing, D.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zangwill, L. M.

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuppardi, E.

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

C. Ahlers, C. Simader, W. Geitzenauer, G. Stock, P. Stetson, S. Dastmalchi, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Automatic segmentation in three-dimensional analysis of fibrovascular pigmentepithelial detachment using high-definition optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92(2), 197–203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. Ishikawa, K. R. Sung, J. Xu, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, M. L. Gabriele, L. Kagemann, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement reproducibility improved with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(8), 1057–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, A. V. Arya, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 89–95 (1995).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (5)

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abramoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

R. R. Bourne, F. A. Medeiros, C. Bowd, K. Jahanbakhsh, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Comparability of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of optical coherence tomography instruments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(4), 1280–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Swindale, G. Stjepanovic, A. Chin, and F. S. Mikelberg, “Automated analysis of normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head topography images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(7), 1730–1742 (2000).
[PubMed]

D. L. Budenz, R. T. Chang, X. Huang, R. W. Knighton, and J. M. Tielsch, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(7), 2440–2443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, Y. Hong, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated retinal shadow compensation of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 010503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma (1)

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, “Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 177–189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Carpineto, M. Ciancaglini, E. Zuppardi, G. Falconio, E. Doronzo, and L. Mastropasqua, “Reliability of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Ophthalmology 110(1), 190–195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Steps in the deformation procedure to search for the anterior RNFL boundary. (a-c) a B-scan in an image volume superimposed with the corresponding curve in the analytical surface at the 30th, 45th and the last (96th) iterations of the deformation procedure. Plates (d-f) show an overview of the analytical surface at these 3 iterations. The arrow in (a) shows an area with strong gradient that sets the Θ function to be 1 before the analytical surface is close to the target boundary.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

En-face image and pixel vesselness. (a) the en-face image calculated by averaging the 50 pixels below and above the detected RPE. (b) the pixel vesselness in grayscale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The RNFLT map calculated from the segmented retinal structures of a healthy subject (a) and a glaucomatous patient (b). The RNFLT map was colour-coded in micrometers. Note the significantly thicker RNFLT, especially in the superior and inferior areas, in the healthy example (a) compared with that of the glaucomatous example (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An illustration of the location and width of two different annuli used to calculate the mean and quadrant RNFLT. The wide (0.580mm wide from the inner margin radius of 1.170mm) annulus was twice as wide as the narrow one (0.290mm wide from the inner margin radius of 1.315mm). Both annuli were centered on the same circle with a radius of 1.460mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The benefit of a segmentation in 3D space. (a) a B-scan with a segment of RNFL with an indistinct posterior boundary. The region with an indistinct posterior RNFL boundary is denoted by a white arrow in the image. (b, c) the RNFL boundary in the B-scans adjacent to the one in (a) is more distinct; the location of indistinct RNFL boundary in (a) is also marked. (d) the locations of B-scans (a, b, c) in the image volume. (e) the segmented RPE and anterior and posterior RNFL boundaries in image (a) by FloatingCanvas.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean and SD of signed and absolute difference between the manual and FloatingCanvas segmentation for glaucomatous and healthy subjects. The difference values were summarized with all 3 surfaces and anterior, posterior RNFL and RPE respectively

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean and SD of total and quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of healthy and glaucomatous eyes. RNFLT was determined with two types of calculation annuli (0.58mm and 0.29mm wide, respectively)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Coefficient of variation and test-retest variability of total and quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of healthy retina measured by FloatingCanvas. RNFLT was calculated at two widths of calculation annuli (0.58mm and 0.29mm). A typical reproducibility of StratusOCT is given for comparison

Tables Icon

Table 4 Coefficient of variation and test-retest variability of total and quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of glaucomatous subjects measured by FloatingCanvas. RNFLT was calculated at two widths of calculation annuli (0.58mm and 0.29mm). A typical reproducibility of StratusOCT is given for comparison

Equations (16)

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[ w f ( X * ) ] ~ N ( 0 ,   [ K ( X X ) + δ n 2 I K ( X X * ) K ( X * X ) K ( X * X * ) ] )
f ¯ ( X * ) = K ( X * X ) ( K ( X X ) + δ n 2 I ) 1 w
cov( f ¯ ( X * ) ) = K ( X * X * ) K ( X * X ) ( K ( X X ) + δ n 2 I ) 1 K ( X X * )
d f ¯ ( X * ) d t = Θ ¯ ( X * ,   f ¯ ( X * ) ) F g ( X * ,   f ¯ ( X * ) ) + Θ ( X * ,   f ¯ ( X * ) ) F I m g ( X * ,   f ¯ ( X * ) )
K ( X * X ) ( K ( X X ) + δ n 2 I ) 1 d w d t = Θ ¯ F g + Θ F I m g
d w d t = Λ ( Θ ¯ F g + Θ F I m g )
w n e w = w o l d + Λ ( Θ ¯ o l d F g o l d + Θ o l d F I m g o l d ) Δ t
F g ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = ( I m ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) + g ) f ¯ ( x * i )
F i m g ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = | I m ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) | f ¯ ( x * i )
Θ ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = { 1 | I m ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) | | g | 0 o t h e r w i s e
F g ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = | g |
F i m g ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = I m ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) f ¯ ( x * i )
Θ ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = { 1 I m ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) I m max ( x * i ) 0 o t h e r w i s e
Θ ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) = { 1 | I m ( x * i ,   f ¯ ( x * i ) ) | | g |  and both constraints are met 0 o t h e r w i s e
S v n = { 0                            v max 0 e ( ν min / ν max ) 2 0.5 2 e 1 2 e ν min 2 + ν max 2 15 2        v max > 0
[ x i 1 x i 1 E F ( x i ) x i 1 x i 2 E F ( x i ) x i 2 x i 1 E F ( x i ) x i 2 x i 2 E F ( x i ) ]

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