Abstract

We report on mirrorless continuous wave laser oscillation at 1064 nm from a 808 nm pumped Nd:YAG optical channel waveguide fabricated by 1 MeV focused proton beam writing. Pump power threshold has been found to be 94 mW with a laser slope efficiency of 40%. A maximum output power at 1064 nm for the waveguide laser is 63 mW at absorbed pump power of 247 mW.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, “Proton beam writing,” Mater. Today 10(6), 20–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, C. Florea, and F. Watt, “Proton-beam writing of poly-methylmethacrylate buried channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3803–3809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ansari, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio 100 nm metallic stamps for nanoimprint lithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 476–478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 181, 49 (2001).

2000

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992

1985

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, K.

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ansari, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio 100 nm metallic stamps for nanoimprint lithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 476–478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auželyté, V.

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bardyszewski, W.

Benayas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Benisty, H.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, “Proton beam writing,” Mater. Today 10(6), 20–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, C. Florea, and F. Watt, “Proton-beam writing of poly-methylmethacrylate buried channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3803–3809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ansari, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio 100 nm metallic stamps for nanoimprint lithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 476–478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 181, 49 (2001).

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Breese, M. B. H.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, “Proton beam writing,” Mater. Today 10(6), 20–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Cheong, F. C.

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choo, T. F.

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, M.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Houdré, R.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maximov, I.

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meilán, P. F.

Mendez, C.

Montelius, L.

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osipowicz, T.

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rajta, I.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rattier, M.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Seng, H. L.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. J. M.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sow, C. H.

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T. C.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, C. Florea, and F. Watt, “Proton-beam writing of poly-methylmethacrylate buried channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3803–3809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Teo, E. J.

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, K. K.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Kan, J. A.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, “Proton beam writing,” Mater. Today 10(6), 20–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ansari, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio 100 nm metallic stamps for nanoimprint lithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 476–478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 181, 49 (2001).

Vázquez, G. V.

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal Rao, S.

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, “Proton beam writing,” Mater. Today 10(6), 20–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, C. Florea, and F. Watt, “Proton-beam writing of poly-methylmethacrylate buried channel waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3803–3809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ansari, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio 100 nm metallic stamps for nanoimprint lithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 476–478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 181, 49 (2001).

Weisbuch, C.

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitlow, H. J.

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Yao, F. Chen, A. A. Bettiol, A. Rodenas, and A. K. Kar, “Micro-structuring of Nd:YAG crystals by proton beam writing,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Yevick, D.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro- spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. M. Smith, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, R. Houdré, and U. Oesterle, “Low-loss channel waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal boundaries,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2813–2815 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ansari, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio 100 nm metallic stamps for nanoimprint lithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 476–478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, J. A. van Kan, F. Watt, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. K. Tung, “Proton beam writing of low-loss polymer optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1707–1709 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Continuous-wave laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton- and carbon- implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4110–4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, T. C. Sum, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of optical waveguides using proton beam writing,” J. Cryst. Growth 288(1), 209–212 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Phys. D

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, “Proton beam writing,” Mater. Today 10(6), 20–29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

H. J. Whitlow, M. L. Ng, V. Auželyté, I. Maximov, L. Montelius, J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Lithography of high spatial density biosensor structures with sub-100 nm spacing by MeV proton beam writing with minimal proximity effect,” Nanotechnology 15(1), 223–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three-dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 181, 49 (2001).

A. A. Bettiol, T. C. Sum, F. C. Cheong, C. H. Sow, S. Venugopal Rao, J. A. van Kan, E. J. Teo, K. Ansari, and F. Watt, “A progress review of proton beam writing applications in microphotonics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 231(1-4), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, I. Rajta, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 266–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J. A. van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, and T. Osipowicz, “The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: Performance tests,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 210, 14–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

G. Lifante, Integrated Photonics: Fundamentals (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, 2003).

J. F. Ziegler, computer code, SRIM http://www.srim.org .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The defects per atom (DPA) (blue solid line) and H + range (red dashed line) profiles of proton beam at energy of 1MeV and fluence of 1×1016 cm−2 based on SRIM calculation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Reconstructed index profile, (b) measured and (c) calculated modal profiles with normalized intensity of the fundamental mode corresponding to the Nd:YAG channel waveguide produced by 1MeV PBW at fluence of 1×1016 cm−2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the room temperature micro-luminescence emission spectra correlated to Nd3+ ions at 4F3/24I11/2 transition obtained from the channel waveguide (dashed line) and the bulk (solid line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser oscillation spectra from the waveguide produced by 1 MeV PBW at fluence of 1×1016 cm−2, showing a keen-edged peak at 1064.2 nm with a FWHM of 0.75nm. The mode image of the waveguide laser is shown as inset. (b) The measured output laser power as a function of the absorbed pump power (balls) from the waveguide. The green solid line shows the linear fit of the experimental data.

Equations (1)

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Δ n = sin 2 Θ m n

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