Abstract

The nonlinear propagation of a single focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica has been investigated both experimentally and by numerical simulations. In particular, the filamentation behavior was systematically studied by varying pulse duration. At low pulse energy, the peak plasma density inside the filament first increases to a maximum value with increasing pulse duration and then begins to decrease. At relatively high pulse energy, denser plasma can be induced around the geometrical focus with a certain longer pulse duration, where the peak power is already below the self-focusing critical power and no filament is formed. This pulse duration dependent behavior can be explained by different ionization mechanisms.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. W. Liu, and S. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).
  32. Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

Y. Fu, H. Xiong, H. Xu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, "Generation of extended filaments of femtosecond pulses in air by use of a single-step phase plate," Opt. Lett. 34, 3752 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (1)

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, "Discrete damage traces from filamentation of Gauss-Bessel pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, and S. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 um," Opt. Commun. 256, 422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and K. Itoh, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses in silica glass induced by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).

2003 (4)

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arevalo, E.

Balciunas, T.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Cheng, Y.

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S.

Chin, S. L.

Y. Fu, H. Xiong, H. Xu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, "Generation of extended filaments of femtosecond pulses in air by use of a single-step phase plate," Opt. Lett. 34, 3752 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 um," Opt. Commun. 256, 422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, W.

Couairon, A.

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamosauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, "Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water," Opt. Lett. 33, 86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

Dubietis, A.

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamosauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, "Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water," Opt. Lett. 33, 86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Gaizauskas, E.

E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, "Discrete damage traces from filamentation of Gauss-Bessel pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

J. Yu, H. Jiang, J. Wen, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Mechanism of depolarization of white light generated by femtosecond laser pulse in water," Opt. Express 18, 12581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, X. Lu, T. Xi, Q. Gong, and J. Zhang, "Widening of Long-range femtosecond laser filaments in turbulent air," Opt. Express 16, 8332 (2008).
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Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
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Gravel, J.-F.

Guo, H.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
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Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
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Ilkov, F. A.

Ionin, A. A.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and K. Itoh, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses in silica glass induced by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jarutis, V.

Jiang, H.

J. Yu, H. Jiang, J. Wen, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Mechanism of depolarization of white light generated by femtosecond laser pulse in water," Opt. Express 18, 12581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, "Discrete damage traces from filamentation of Gauss-Bessel pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
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J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466 (2008).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
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L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

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W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
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Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
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A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304 (1997).
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Kucinskas, E.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
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D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
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Kudryashov, S. I.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

Li, Y.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses in silica glass induced by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).

Liu, W.

Y. Fu, H. Xiong, H. Xu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, "Generation of extended filaments of femtosecond pulses in air by use of a single-step phase plate," Opt. Lett. 34, 3752 (2009).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
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W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
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W. Liu, and S. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005).
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N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
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J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minardi, S.

Misawa, H.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, "Discrete damage traces from filamentation of Gauss-Bessel pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizeikis, V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, "Discrete damage traces from filamentation of Gauss-Bessel pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 80 (2006).
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Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
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A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, N. T.

Nishii, J.

Onda, S.

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and K. Itoh, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, R.

Porras, M. A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saliminia, A.

Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
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A. Saliminia, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 um," Opt. Commun. 256, 422 (2005).
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N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamosauskas, G.

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamosauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, "Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water," Opt. Lett. 33, 86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tatarakis, M.

Théberge, F.

Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trapani, P. D.

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamosauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, "Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water," Opt. Lett. 33, 86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallee, R.

Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 um," Opt. Commun. 256, 422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanagas, E.

Watanabe, W.

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and K. Itoh, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses in silica glass induced by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).

Wen, J.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. P.

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

Wu, Z.

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T.

Xiong, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Yamada, K.

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and K. Itoh, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses in silica glass induced by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).

Yang, H.

J. Yu, H. Jiang, J. Wen, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Mechanism of depolarization of white light generated by femtosecond laser pulse in water," Opt. Express 18, 12581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yu, J.

J. Yu, H. Jiang, J. Wen, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Mechanism of depolarization of white light generated by femtosecond laser pulse in water," Opt. Express 18, 12581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

Zhang, J.

Zhou, Y.

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zvorykin, V. D.

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. D. Trapani, "Measurement and calculation of nonlinear absorption associated with femtosecond filaments in water," Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, T. Balciunas, H. Misawa, S. I. Kudryashov, V. D. Zvorykin, and A. A. Ionin, "Optical and ultrasonic signatures of femtosecond pulse filamentation in fused silica," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Q. Sun, A. Saliminia, F. Théberge, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Microchannel fabrication in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses with different central wavelengths," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035039 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (3)

H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, "The pulse duration dependence of femtosecond laser induced refractive index modulation in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Different tendencies of breakdown threshold on pulse duration in the subpicosecond regime in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and K. Itoh, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, R. Vallee, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 um," Opt. Commun. 256, 422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, E. Kucinskas, A. Couairon, and P. D. Trapani, "Angular and chromatic dispersion in Kerr-driven conical emission," Opt. Commun. 265, 672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (9)

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Xiong, H. Xu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, "Generation of extended filaments of femtosecond pulses in air by use of a single-step phase plate," Opt. Lett. 34, 3752 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, E. Arevalo, J.-F. Gravel, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Experiment and simulations on the energy reservoir effect in femtosecond light filaments," Opt. Lett. 30, 2602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, "Discrete damage traces from filamentation of Gauss-Bessel pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 80 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. Wu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 30, 320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses in silica glass induced by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamosauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, "Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water," Opt. Lett. 33, 86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-Guided Propagation of Ultrashort IR Laser Pulses in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EMCCD images (a)–(f) and the plot of on-axis relative intensities (g) of plasma luminescence induced by a single focused ultrashort pulse with different pulse durations. The energy of the pulse is fixed at 2.7 μJ. The arrow indicates the laser propagation direction, and the zero position is located at the incident surface of the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical results of pulse durations dependent 3D (a)–(f) and on-axis distribution (g) of electron plasma density. The grey curve in (g) is the recalculated result for the case of 1600 fs using 8 fs as τ value, while τ is set as 2 fs for other curves. The pulse energy and the focusing condition are the same as those in Fig. 2. The arrow indicates the laser propagation direction, and the zero position is located at the incident surface of the sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical results of the pulse duration dependent on-axis distribution of electron plasma density when the avalanche ionization is neglected. The pulse energy and the focusing condition are the same as those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EMCCD images (a–g) and the plot of the on-axis relative intensities (h) of plasma luminescence induced by a single focused ultrashort pulse with different pulse durations. The energy of the pulse is fixed at 3.0 μJ. The arrow indicates the laser propagation direction, and the zero position is located at the incident surface of the sample.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z f = 0.367 k a 2 { [ ( P / P c r ) 1 / 2 0.852 ] 2 0.0219 } 1 / 2 ,
Z = Z f f Z f + f .
γ = ω 0 e m e c n ɛ 0 E g I ,
( i 2 k z + 2 ) E = k k 2 E ξ 2 i k σ ( 1 + i ω τ ) ρ E i K β K | E | 2 K 2 E 2 k k 0 n 2 | E | 2 E ,
ρ ξ = 1 n 2 σ E g ρ | E | 2 + β ( K ) | E | 2 K K ħ ω ρ τ r .

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