Abstract

Optical molecular imaging resulting from Cerenkov radiation has become a motivating topic recently and will potentially open new avenues for the study of small animal imaging. Cerenkov-based optical imaging taken from living animals in vivo has been studied with two-dimensional (2D) planar geometry and three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous mouse model. In this study, we performed 3D Cerenkov-based luminescence tomography (CLT) using a heterogeneous mouse model with an implanted Na131I radioactive source, which provided the accurate location for the reconstructed source. Furthermore, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was utilized to verify the results of 3D CLT. We reconstructed the localization and intensity of an embedded radioactive source with various concentrations, and established a quantitative relationship between the radiotracer activity and the reconstructed intensity. The results showed the ability of in vivo CLT to recover the radioactive probe distribution in the heterogeneous mouse model and the potential of a SPECT imaging validation strategy to verify the results of optical molecular tomography.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (5)

2009 (4)

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Han, J. Liang, X. Qu, Y. Hou, N. Ren, J. Mao, and J. Tian, “A source reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp-FEM for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14481–14494 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14481 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Joshi, J. C. Rasmussen, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, T. A. Wareing, and J. McGhee, “Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(8), 2069–2088 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, “Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6756–6771 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6756 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, “Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(8), 2289–2299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. E. Bowsher, V. E. Johnson, T. G. Turkington, R. J. Jaszczak, C. R. Floyd, and R. E. Coleman, “Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(5), 673–686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11), 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955 (1)

J. V. Jelley, “Cerenkov radiation and its applications,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 6(7), 227–232 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11), 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

Bao, S.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[PubMed]

Barber, W. C.

Boschi, F.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Cerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boswell, A.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowsher, J. E.

J. E. Bowsher, V. E. Johnson, T. G. Turkington, R. J. Jaszczak, C. R. Floyd, and R. E. Coleman, “Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(5), 673–686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calderan, L.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Cerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatziioannou, A. F.

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(17), 4225–4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Chen, N.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. C.

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherry, S. R.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1109–1111 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-35-7-1109 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J. S.

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, R. E.

J. E. Bowsher, V. E. Johnson, T. G. Turkington, R. J. Jaszczak, C. R. Floyd, and R. E. Coleman, “Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(5), 673–686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, A.

Cong, W.

D’Ambrosio, D.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Cerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

Dehghani, H.

Delpy, D. T.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11), 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durairaj, K.

Floyd, C. R.

J. E. Bowsher, V. E. Johnson, T. G. Turkington, R. J. Jaszczak, C. R. Floyd, and R. E. Coleman, “Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(5), 673–686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

Germanos, M. S.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulsen, G.

Han, P.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, R.

Henry, M.

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22(11), 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E.

Hou, Y.

Iwanczyk, J. S.

Jaszczak, R. J.

J. E. Bowsher, V. E. Johnson, T. G. Turkington, R. J. Jaszczak, C. R. Floyd, and R. E. Coleman, “Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(5), 673–686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelley, J. V.

J. V. Jelley, “Cerenkov radiation and its applications,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 6(7), 227–232 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Jiang, S.

Johnson, V. E.

J. E. Bowsher, V. E. Johnson, T. G. Turkington, R. J. Jaszczak, C. R. Floyd, and R. E. Coleman, “Bayesian reconstruction and use of anatomical a priori information for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(5), 673–686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, J. C. Rasmussen, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, T. A. Wareing, and J. McGhee, “Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(8), 2069–2088 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, D.

Li, C.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1109–1111 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-35-7-1109 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, “Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(8), 2289–2299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Liang, W.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. P. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27(5), 48–57 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luo, J.

Lv, Y.

Ma, X.

Mao, J.

Marengo, M.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Cerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCray, P.

McGhee, J.

A. Joshi, J. C. Rasmussen, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, T. A. Wareing, and J. McGhee, “Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(8), 2069–2088 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLennan, G.

Miao, Z.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, G. S.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, “Cerenkov luminescence tomography for small-animal imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1109–1111 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-35-7-1109 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nalcioglu, O.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nat. Med. 8(7), 757–761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olma, S.

J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

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A. Joshi, J. C. Rasmussen, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, T. A. Wareing, and J. McGhee, “Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(8), 2069–2088 (2008).
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A. Joshi, J. C. Rasmussen, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, T. A. Wareing, and J. McGhee, “Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(8), 2069–2088 (2008).
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F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
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R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
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Nature (1)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
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Opt. Express (7)

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Phys. Med. Biol. (6)

A. Joshi, J. C. Rasmussen, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, T. A. Wareing, and J. McGhee, “Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(8), 2069–2088 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, “Cerenkov radiation allows in vivo optical imaging of positron emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 483–495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, “Optical imaging of Cerenkov light generation from positron-emitting radiotracers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(16), N355–N365 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Boschi, A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, and A. Sbarbati, “Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(23), L57–L62 (2009).
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J. S. Cho, R. Taschereau, S. Olma, K. Liu, Y. C. Chen, C. K. Shen, R. M. van Dam, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6757–6771 (2009).
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PLoS ONE (1)

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, Z. Cheng, and A. Boswell, “Molecular optical imaging with radioactive probes,” PLoS ONE 5(3), e9470 (2010).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radioactive sources imaging. (a) Fusion of luminescent image and the corresponding photograph of the control source and radioactive sources respectively. The activities of the radioactive sources were 100 μCi, 200 μCi, 300 μCi, 400 μCi, 500 μCi and 600 μCi respectively. (b) Spectrum distribution of the emitted-light from the radioactive source with an activity of 300 μCi.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation analysis between Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and SPECT imaging. (a) Quantification of imaging signals showed a drastic increase from 100 μCi to 600 μCi. (b) Quantification of signals showed a robust in vitro correlation between CLI and SPECT imaging (r 2 = 0.98).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminescent views in pseudo-color superimposed on the corresponding photographs of the mouse with an implanted 600 μCi Na131I radioactive source. (a)-(d) Anterior-posterior, left lateral, right lateral, and posterior-anterior views respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mouse model with an implanted 600 μCi Na131I radioactive source and its associated luminescent measurement. (a) A geometrical model of the mouse chest consisting of adipose, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, and kidneys. (b) The measured luminescent data mapped onto the 3D mesh surface of the mouse chest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CLT reconstruction of the radioactive source distribution in the mouse with an implanted 600 μCi Na131I radioactive source. (a) and (b) are the 3D renderings of the reconstructed source distribution in heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models respectively. (c) The true source (inside the black circle) in a micro-CT slice superimposed with the reconstructed source (red triangle) from a sagittal view.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The reconstruction results of the 300 μCi Na131I radioactive source. (a) and (b) are the reconstruction results in horizontal, coronal, and sagittal views of CLT and SPECT imaging respectively. Fusion of the reconstruction source with SPECT and CT images shows the exact SPECT reconstruction location of the implanted radioactive source (arrow). The images are shown in horizontal, coronal, and sagittal views.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlation analysis between CLT reconstructed maximum intensity and the radiotracer activity. There was a robust correlation between activity versus the maximum intensity (r 2 = 0.966).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of reconstruction results based on heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of reconstruction results obtained using CLT and SPECT

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A k S k P = Φ k C
min S inf S k p S sup Θ ( S k P ) = A k S k P Φ k C L 2 ( Ω ) + λ k S k P L 2 ( Ω )

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